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GENERAL INFORMATION

GDP USD141.669bn (World ranking 56, World Bank 2012)
Population 88.78 million (World ranking 14, World Bank 2012)
Form of state Communist State
Head of government Nguyen Tan DUNG
Next elections 2016, legislative

 

CURRENT LOCAL TIME

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PRODUCTS IN VIETNAM

Data Protection

Data Protection Laws Not Found

(Passed on November 29, 2005)

Chapter I General Provisions

Article 1. – Governing scope

1. This Law provides for the prevention, detection and handling of persons who commit corrupt acts and the responsibilities of agencies, organizations, units and individuals in corruption prevention and combat.

2. Corruption means acts committed by persons with positions and/or powers of abusing such positions and/or powers for self-seeking interests.

3. Persons with positions and/or powers shall include:

A/ Public servants;

B/ Officers, professional army men, defense workers in agencies or units of the People’s Army; officers, non-commissioned officers, professional- technical officers, non-commissioned officers in agencies or units of the People’s Police;

C/ Leading, managerial officials in state enterprises; leading, managerial officials being representatives of the State’s contributed capital portions at enterprises;

D/ Persons assigned tasks or official duties who have powers while performing such tasks or official duties.

Article 2. – Interpretation of terms

In this Law, the terms below shall be construed as follows:

1. Corruption-related property means property acquired from corrupt acts, property originating from corrupt acts.

2. Publicity means the polarization, supply of official information on documents, activities or certain contents by agencies, organizations or units.

3. Property and income transparency means the declaration of property, incomes by persons who are obliged to make such declaration which, when necessary, shall be verified and concluded.

4. Harassment means acts of bumbled, authoritarianism, causing difficulties or troubles when performing tasks or official duties.

5. Self-seeking interests mean material and/or spiritual interests which are obtained or can be obtained by persons with positions and/or powers through corrupt acts.

6. Agencies, organizations, units include state agencies, political organizations, socio-political organizations, people’s armed force units, non-business units, state enterprises and other agencies, organizations and units using the state budget and/or properties.

Article 3. – Corrupt acts

1. Embezzling properties.

2. Taking bribes.

3. Abusing positions, powers to appropriate properties.

4. Taking advantage of positions, powers while performing tasks or official duties for self-seeking interests.

5. Abusing powers while performing tasks or official duties for self-seeking interests.

6. Taking advantage of positions, powers to influence other persons for self-seeking interests.

7. Committing forgeries in work for self-seeking interests.

8. Offering bribes, bribe brokerage by persons with positions and/or powers to settle affairs of agencies, organizations, units or localities for self-seeking interests.

9. Taking advantage of positions, powers to illegally use state properties for self-seeking interests.

10. Harassment for self-seeking interests.

11. Failure to perform tasks or official duties for self-seeking interests.

12. Taking advantage of positions, powers to cover up law violators for self-seeking interests; illegally hindering, intervening in the examinations, inspections, auditing, investigations, prosecutions, adjudications or judgment executions for self-seeking interests.

Article 4. – Principles for handling of corruption

1. All corrupt acts must be detected, stopped and handled in a timely, strict and just manner.

2. Persons who commit corrupt acts shall be handled according to the provisions of law irrespective of their positions.

3. Corruption-related properties must be recovered, confiscated; persons committing corrupt acts and causing damage must pay compensations, indemnities according to the provisions of law.

4. Persons who commit corrupt acts and take initiative in reporting them before they are detected actively limit damage caused by their illegal acts and/or voluntarily hand over corruption-related properties can be considered for alleviation of discipline, penalties or exemption from penal liability examination according to the provisions of law.

5. The handling of corruption must be affected in a public manner according to the provisions of law.

6. Those who have committed corrupt acts and have retired, left their jobs or been transferred to other jobs shall still be handled for their corrupt acts.

Article 5. – Responsibilities of agencies, organizations, units and persons with positions and/or powers

1. Agencies, organizations and units shall, within the ambit of their respective tasks and powers, have the following responsibilities:

A/ to organize the implementation of legal documents on corruption prevention and combat;

B/ to receive and handle in time reports, denunciations and other information on corrupt acts;

C/ to protect the legitimate rights and interests of persons who have detected, reported on, denounced corrupt acts;

d/ To take initiative in precluding, detecting corrupt acts; to promptly supply information, documents and meet the requests of competent agencies, organizations or individuals in the process of detecting and handling persons who commit corrupt acts.

2. Heads of agencies, organizations or units shall, within the ambit of their respective tasks and powers, have the following responsibilities:

A/ to direct the implementation of the provisions of Clause 1 of this Article;

b/ To be exemplary, incorruptible; to periodically review the performance of their tasks and responsibilities in precluding and detecting corrupt acts, handling persons who have committed corrupt acts;

C/ to bear responsibility when letting corrupt acts occur in their respective agencies, organizations or units.

3. Persons with positions and/or powers shall have the following responsibilities:

A/ to perform their tasks and/or official duties strictly according to the provisions of law;

B/ to be exemplary, incorruptible; to strictly observe the provisions of law on corruption prevention and combat, the code of conducts and the rules on professional ethics;

C/ to declare their properties according to the provisions of this Law and take responsibility for the accuracy, truthfulness of such declarations.

Article 6. – Rights and obligations of citizens in corruption prevention and combat

Citizens shall have the rights to detect, denounce corrupt acts, have the obligations to cooperate with and assist competent agencies, organizations or individuals in the detection and handling of persons who have committed corrupt acts.

Article 7. – Coordination responsibilities of inspectorates, the state audit, investigating bodies, procuresses, courts and concerned agencies, organizations as well as units

Inspectorates, the state audit, investigating bodies, procuresses and courts shall, within the ambit of their respective tasks and powers, have to coordinate with one another and coordinate with concerned agencies, organizations and/or units in detecting corrupt acts, handling corruption committers and take responsibility before law for their respective conclusions and decisions in the course of inspection, auditing, investigation, prosecution, adjudication of corruption cases.

Concerned agencies, organizations and units shall have to create conditions for, and collaborate with, inspectorates, the state audit, investigating bodies, procuresses, courts in detecting and handling corruption committers.

Article 8. – Responsibilities of Vietnam Fatherland Front and its member organizations

Vietnam Fatherland Front and its member organizations shall have to mobilize people to actively participate in corruption prevention and combat; detect, propose competent agencies, organizations or individuals to handle persons who commit corrupt acts; supervise the observance of law on corruption prevention and combat.

Article 9. – Responsibilities of press agencies

Press agencies shall have the responsibility to participate in corruption prevention and combat; cooperate with competent agencies, organizations or individuals in corruption prevention and combat; must ensure accuracy, truthfulness and objectiveness in their reports and bear responsibility for the contents of information they have reported.

Article 10. – Prohibited acts

1. Acts specified in Article 3 of this Law.

2. Intimidation, revenge, retaliation of persons who have detected, reported on, denounced, supplied information on corrupt acts.

3. Taking advantage of denunciation of corruption to slander other agencies, organizations, units or individuals.

Chapter II Corruption Prevention

Section 1. Publicity, Transparency in Activities of Agencies, Organization, Units

Article 11. – Principles on and contents of publicity, transparency in activities of agencies, organizations, units

1. Policies, laws and the implementation of policies, laws must be publicized and transparent, ensuring fairness and democracy.

2. Agencies, organizations and units must publicize their activities, except for contents classified as state secrets and other contents prescribed by the Government.

Article 12. – Forms of publicity

1. Publicity forms shall include:

A/ Announcement at meetings of agencies, organizations, units;

B/ Posting up at working offices of agencies, organizations, units;

C/ Written notification to concerned agencies, organizations, units or individuals;

D/ Distribution of publications;

E/ Notification on the mass media;

F/ Load-up on websites;

G/ Supply of information at the request of agencies, organizations or individuals.

2. Besides the cases where the publicity form provided for by law, heads of agencies, organizations or units shall have to select one or a number of publicity forms specified in Clause 1 of this Article.

Article 13. – Publicity, transparency in procurement of public properties and capital construction

1. The procurement of public properties and the capital construction must be publicized under the provisions of law.

2. Where the procurement of public properties and the capital construction, as provided for by law, must be put up for bidding, the publicity contents shall cover:

A/ Plan on bidding, invitation to pre-qualification and pre-qualification results, invitation to bidding;

B/ List of bidders participating in restricted bidding, shortlist of bidders participating in restricted bidding, results of contractor selection;

C/ Information on individuals, organizations belonging to project owners, bid solicitors, contractors, managing agencies or other subjects that violate the law on bidding; information on contractors banned from participation and information on handling of violations of law on bidding;

D/ legal documents on bidding, systems of data information on bidding;

E/ Report on review of bidding work nationwide of the Ministry of Planning and Investment; reports on review of bidding work of ministries, branches, localities and establishments;

F/ Competence and procedures to receive and settle complaints and denunciations in bidding.

Article 14. – Publicity, transparency in management of construction investment projects

1. Construction investment planning projects must be commented by people of localities covered by the planning.

2. Construction investment projects funded by local budgets must be considered and decided by People’s Councils.

3. Construction investment projects, after being decided upon and approved, must be made public for people to supervise them.

Article 15. – Financial and state budget publicity, transparency

1. Budgets of all levels, budget-estimating units must publicize in detail the estimate and settlement figures, which have been decided, ratified by competent state bodies, including supplemented budget amounts.

2. Budget-estimating units with revenue sources from and expenditures covered by contributions of organizations and/or individuals according to the provisions of law must publicize the mobilization purposes, mobilization results and the efficiency of the use of mobilized sources.

3. Organizations provided with state budget supports must publicize the following contents;

A/ Estimate and settlement figures;

B/ Contributions of organizations, individuals (if any);

C/ Bases for determination of support levels and state budget support amounts.

4. Capital construction investment projects using state budget capital must be publicized with the following contents:

A/ The allocation of investment capital in the state budget estimate assigned annually to the projects;

B/ Budget estimates of investment projects under the approved investment plans, the investment capital of projects assigned in annual budget estimates;

C/ Annual investment capital settlement of projects;

D/ Investment capital settlement upon project completion, which has been approved by competent authorities.

5. Funds originating from the state budget must be publicized with the following contents:

A/ Operation regulations and financial mechanisms of the funds;

B/ Annual financial plans detailing revenues, expenditures related to state budget according to regulations of competent authorities;

C/ Results of the funds’ operation;

D/ Annual settlement already approved by competent authorities.

6. The allocation and use of state budget and property for projects and target programs already approved by competent state bodies must be made public to concerned agencies, organizations and/or units and people of localities directly benefiting there from.

Article 16. – Publicity, transparency of the mobilization and use of contributions of people

1. The mobilization of people’s contributions for construction of works or setting up of funds in localities must be commented by people and considered and decided by the People’s Councils of the same level.

2. The mobilization and use of people’s contributions specified in Clause 1 of this Article must be made public for supervision by people and be subject to inspection, examination and supervision under the provisions of law.

3. The publicity contents shall cover mobilization purposes, mobilization levels, the use of contributions, results of such use and the report on settlement thereof.

4. Infrastructure works in communes, wards or district townships, which are financed by people’s contributions, must be publicized with the following contents:

A/ The publicity contents specified in Clause 3 of this Article;

B/ Cost estimate for every work item under the approved investment plans;

C/ Investment capital sources for each work item;

D/ Results of mobilization from each specific subject, the mobilization duration;

E/ Results of selection of contractors, which have been approved by competent authorities;

F/ Construction progress and results of pre-acceptance tests of work volume, work quality and work settlement.

5. The mobilization and use of people’s contributions for charity and humanitarian purposes shall comply with the provisions of Clauses 2 and 3 of this Article.

Article 17. – Publicity and transparency of the management and use of financial supports, aids

The management, allocation and use of official development assistance (ODA) capital sources shall comply with the provisions of Article 15 of this Law. Non-governmental aids must be made public to beneficiaries.

Article 18. – Publicity and transparency in management of state enterprises

State enterprises shall have the responsibility to publicize the State’s capital and properties invested in the enterprises, preferential loan capital, financial statements and auditing results, the appropriation, setting up and use of their funds, the labor recruitment, the appointment of leading and managerial officials of enterprises and other contents as provided for by law.

Article 19. – Publicity and transparency in equalization of state enterprises

1. The equalization of state enterprises must be public and transparent; must not be conducted in a self-contained manner within the enterprises. Equalized enterprises shall have to publicize their actual financial status upon their valuation.

2. Competent state agencies shall have to publicize the values of equalized enterprises and the adjustment (if any) of enterprise value.

3. The first-time sale of equities of equalized enterprises must be conducted by auction.

Article 20. – Audit of the use of state budget and properties

1. Agencies, organizations and units shall have to audit, and be subject to the audit of, the use of state budget and properties under the provisions of law on audit.

2. Auditing reports must be made public according to Article 12 of this Law.

Article 21. – Publicity and transparency in management and use of land

1. The elaboration of land use planning’s and plans must ensure democracy and publicity.

2. In the process of elaborating and adjusting detailed land use planning’s and/or plans, the elaborating agencies or organizations must publicly announce such to people of the localities where the planning’s and adjustments are made.

3. Detailed land use planning’s and plans, the ground clearance, the compensation levels, after being decided, approved or adjusted by competent state bodies, must be made public.

4. The competence, order and procedures for grant of land use right certificates and the grant of land use right certificates, detailed planning’s on and allotment of residential land lots and the subjects entitled to be assigned residential land for house construction must be publicized.

Article 22. – Publicity and transparency in management and use of dwelling houses

1. The competence, order and procedures for granting, and the grant of, permits for house construction as well as house ownership certificates must be made public.

2. The sale of state-owned houses, subjects entitled to buy state-owned houses and money amounts payable upon purchase of state-owned houses must be made public.

3. The sale of houses to resettled people, low-income earners and other priority subjects must be made public.

Article 23. – Publicity and transparency in the educational domain

1. The enrollment, exams, tests, award of diplomas and certificates must be made public.

2. Educational administration agencies, educational establishments using state budget and properties must publicize the management and use of state budget and properties, the collection, management and use of school tuitions, enrollment fees, proceeds from consultancy activities, technology transfer, financial supports for and investment in education and other revenues under the provisions of law.

Article 24. – Publicity and transparency in the health domain

1. The competence, order and procedures for the grant and recovery of private medical or pharmaceutical practice certificates, certificates of full satisfaction of practice conditions to medical or pharmaceutical establishments must be made public.

2. Health management agencies, medical examination and treatment establishments which use state budget and properties must publicize the collection, management, use of state budget and properties, medicine prices, the collection, management and use of assorted charges related to medical examination and treatment and other revenues as provided for by law.

Article 25. – Publicity and transparency in the scientific and technological domain

1. The consideration, selection, direct assignment, financial supports for implementation of scientific- technological tasks and the assessment and pre-acceptance tests of results of performance of scientific-technological tasks must be conducted in a public manner.

2. Science-technology management agencies and scientific-technological research units must publicize the management and use of state budget and properties, financial supports, aids, investments and proceeds from scientific and technological activities.

Article 26. – Publicity and transparency in the physical training and sports domain

Physical training and sport administration agencies, Vietnam Olympic Committee, sports federations, physical training and sport establishments shall have to publicize the management and use of state budget and properties, proceeds from physical training and sport activities as well as services, financial supports, aids, contributions of domestic and foreign organizations as well as individuals to physical training and sport activities.

Article 27. – Publicity and transparency in activities of inspection, settlement of complaints as well as denunciations and state audit

1. Activities of inspection, settlement of complaints as well as denunciations and state audit must be carried out in a public manner under the provisions of law.

2. The following documents and decisions must be publicized, except otherwise provided for by law:

A/ Inspection conclusions;

B/ Complaint settlement decisions, denunciation settlement decisions;

C/ Auditing reports.

Article 28. – Publicity and transparency in activities of handling affairs of agencies, organizations, units or individuals

1. Agencies, organizations and individuals having managing competence in the fields of housing, land, construction, business registration, project consideration and approval, state budget allocation, credit, banking, export, import, exit, entry, household registration administration, taxation, customs, insurance and other agencies, organizations and individuals directly involved in handling affairs of agencies, organizations, units or individuals must publicize administrative procedures and settle affairs on time, according to law and lawful requests of agencies, organizations, units or individuals.

2. Agencies, organizations, units and individuals shall have the right to request competent agencies, organizations or individuals to settle their affairs and clearly explain relevant contents. Upon receiving requests of agencies, organizations, units or individuals, competent agencies, organizations or individuals must give timely and public explanations.

3. Where competent agencies, organizations or individuals give unsatisfactory explanations or deliberately cause difficulties or troubles, the concerned agencies, organizations, units or individuals may lodge their petitions to the farmer’s immediate superior agencies or organizations.

Article 29. – Publicity and transparency in the justice domain

The reception, investigation, prosecution and adjudication of cases and the judgment execution must be made public according to the provisions of procedural laws and relevant law.

Article 30. – Publicity and transparency in organizational and personnel work

1. The recruitment of public servants and other laborers into agencies, organizations and units must be made public in terms of recruitment quantity, criteria, forms and results.

2. The planning on, training, appointment, rank promotion, rotation, transfer, commendation, sacking of, relief from position or office, dismissal, discipline, retirement of public servants and other laborers must be made public within the agencies, organizations or units where such persons work.

Article 31. – Rights of agencies, organizations to request the supply of information

1. State agencies, political organizations, socio-political organizations, press agencies shall, within the ambit of their tasks and powers, have the rights to request responsible agencies, organizations and units to supply information on their respective activities according to the provisions of law.

2. Within ten days as from the date of receiving the requests, the requested agencies, organizations or units must supply information, except for information contents already publicized on the mass media, publications or posted up publicly; in cases where they do not supply or cannot supply information yet, they must give written replies to the requesting agencies or organizations, clearly stating the reasons therefore.

Article 32. – Individuals’ rights to request the supply of information

1. Public servants and other laborers shall have the rights to request heads of the agencies, organizations or units where they work to supply information on activities of such agencies, organizations or units.

2. Citizens shall have the rights to request presidents of the People’s Committees of communes, wards or district townships where they reside to supply information on activities of such People’s Committees.

3. Within ten days as from the date of receiving the requests, the requested persons shall have to supply information, except for information contents already publicized on the mass media, in publications or publicly posted up; in cases where they do not supply or cannot supply information yet, they must give written replies to the requesting persons, clearly stating the reasons therefore.

Article 33. – Polarization of annual reports on corruption prevention and combat

1. Annually, the Government shall have to report to the National Assembly on corruption prevention and combat nationwide; People’s Committees shall have to report to People’s Councils of the same level on corruption prevention and combat in their respective localities.

2. Reports on corruption prevention and combat must be publicized.

Section 2. FORMATION AND REALIZATION OF REGIMES, NORMS, CRITERIA

Article 34. – Formation, promulgation and realization of regimes, norms, criteria

1. State agencies shall, within the ambit of their tasks and powers, have the responsibilities:

A/ to formulate, promulgate and publicize regimes, norms, criteria;

B/ to publicize regulations on regimes, norms, criteria of interests for every title holder in their respective agencies;

C/ to strictly observe regulations on regimes, norms, criteria.

2. Political organizations, socio-political organizations, non-business units and other agencies, organizations or units using the state budget shall base on the provisions of Clause 1 of this Article to guide the application thereof or coordinate with competent state agencies in formulating, promulgating and publicizing regimes, norms and criteria to be applied in their respective agencies, organizations or units.

3. Agencies, organizations and units are strictly forbidden to illegally promulgate regimes, norms and/or criteria.

Article 35. – Inspection and handling of violations of regulations on regimes, norms and criteria

1. Agencies, organizations and units must regularly inspect the observance of regulations on regimes, norms and criteria and promptly handle acts of violating such regulations.

2. Persons who violate regulations on regimes, norms, criteria must be handled according to the provisions of law.

3. Persons who permit the use in excess of the set regimes, norms and/or criteria must compensate for the excessive use value they have permitted; persons using in excess of set regimes, norms and/or criteria shall bear joint liability to compensate for the excessive use value.

4. Persons who permit the application of regimes, norms, professional criteria lower than the prescribed levels shall have to pay compensations for the lower use value they have permitted; persons who have benefited from the application of lower regimes, norms and/or professional criteria shall bear joint liability to compensate for the value they have benefited.

Section 3. Code of Conducts, Rules of Professional Ethics, Changes of Working Positions of Public Servants

Article 36. – Code of conducts for public servants

1. Code of conducts mean standard behaviors of public servants in performing their tasks and official duties and in social relations, covering things which must be done or must not be done, suitable to the work peculiarity of each group of public servants and each field of public activities, aiming to ensure the righteousness and integrity as well as responsibilities of public servants.

2. Code of conducts of public servants shall be made public for people to supervise the observance thereof.

Article 37. – Things must not be done by public servants

1. Public servants must not do the following things:

a/ Being bumble like, authoritarian, troublesome in handling affairs for agencies, organizations, units and/or individuals;

b/ Setting up, participating in the setting up of, or participating in the management and administration of, private enterprises, limited liability companies, joint-stock companies, partnership companies, cooperatives, private hospitals, private schools and/or private scientific research establishments, except otherwise provided for by law;

c/ Acting as consultants for other domestic or foreign enterprises, organizations or individuals on affairs related to state secrets, work secrets, or affairs which fall under their respective settling jurisdiction or they have joined in the settlement of;

D/ Dealing in domains which they previously had the responsibility to manage within a given period of time after they resigned from their positions according to the Government’s regulations;

E/ Illegally using information, documents of agencies, organizations and/or units for self-seeking interests.

2. Heads and deputy-heads of agencies and their spouses are not allowed to contribute capital to enterprises operating in branches or professions such persons directly perform the state management.

3. Heads and deputy-heads of agencies, organizations or units must not arrange their spouses, parents, children or siblings to hold managerial positions in organizational and personnel work, in accounting and financial affairs, to work as cashiers, warehouse keepers in their agencies, organizations or units or to conduct transactions, trading in supplies, goods, conclusion of contracts of such agencies, organizations or units.

4. Heads and deputy-heads of agencies must not let their spouses, parents; children do business within the scope they directly manage.

5. Public servants being members of the Managing Boards, general directors, deputy-general directors, directors, deputy-directors, chief accountants or other managerial officials in state enterprises shall not be allowed to conclude contracts with enterprises under the ownership of their respective spouses, parents, children or siblings; to permit enterprises under the ownership of their respective spouses, parents, children or siblings to participate in bidding packages of their enterprises; to arrange their respective spouses, parents, children or siblings to hold managerial positions in organizational and personnel, accounting and financial sections, to work as cashiers, warehouse keepers in their enterprises or conduct transactions, purchase and sale of supplies, goods, to conclude contracts for enterprises.

6. The provisions of Clauses 1, 2, 3 and 4 of this Article shall also apply to the following subjects:

A/ Officers, professional army men, defense workers in agencies or units of the People’s Army;

B/ Officers, non-commissioned officers, professional-technical officers and non-commissioned officers in agencies or units of the People’s Police.

Article 38. – Obligations to report and handle reports on signs of corruption

1. Upon detection of signs of corruption in their respective agencies, organizations or units, public servants shall have to promptly report them to the heads of their agencies, organizations or units; where the heads of such agencies, organizations or units are involved in those signs of corruption, they shall report them to their immediate superior agencies, organizations or unit

Article 277. – Definition of position-related crimes

Position-related crimes are acts of infringing upon the legitimate activities of agencies and/or organizations, which are carried out by persons holding positions whilst they are on official duties.

The persons with positions as mentioned above are those who are assigned through appointment, election, contract or other arrangements, with or without salaries, to perform certain official duties and have certain powers while performing such official duties.

Article 279. – Receiving bribes

1. Those who abuse their positions and/or power, have accepted or will accept directly or through intermediaries money, property or other material interests in any form valued between five hundred thousand dong and ten million dong, or under five hundred thousand dong but in one of the following circumstances in order to perform or not to perform certain jobs for the benefits or at the request of the bribe officers, shall be sentenced to between two and seven years of imprisonment:

a) Serious consequences are caused;

b) The offenders have already been disciplined for such acts but continue to commit them;

c) The offenders have already been sentenced for one of the crimes stipulated in ection A, this Chapter, not yet been entitled to criminal record remission but continue to commit them.

2. Committing the crime in one of the following circumstances, the offenders shall be sentenced to between seven and fifteen years of imprisonment:

a) In an organized manner;

b) Abusing positions and/or powers;

c) Committing the offense more than once;

d) Knowing clearly that the bribes are the State抯 property;

e) Asking for bribes, harassing or employing treacherous tricks for bribes;

f) The bribe is valued between ten million dong and under fifty million dong;

g) Causing other serious consequences.

3. Committing the crime in one of the following circumstances, the offenders shall be sentenced to between fifteen and twenty years of imprisonment:

a) Appropriating property valued between fifty million dong and under three hundred million dong;

b) Causing other very serious consequences.

4. Committing the crime in one of the following circumstances, the offenders shall be sentenced to twenty years of imprisonment, life imprisonment or capital punishment:

a) Appropriating property with valued at three hundred million dong or more;

b) Causing other particularly serious consequences.

5. The offenders shall also be banned from holding certain posts for one to five years, may be subject to a fine between one and five times the value of the bribe, and/or the confiscation of part or whole of property.

Article 289. – Offering bribes

1. Those who offer a bribe which has a value of between five hundred thousand dong and under ten million dong, or under five hundred thousand dong but cause serious consequences or commit it more than once, shall be sentenced to between one and six years of imprisonment.

2. Committing the offense in one of the following circumstances, the offenders shall be sentenced to between six months and thirteen years of imprisonment:

a) In an organized manner;

b) Employing treacherous tricks;

c) Using State property to offer bribes;

d) Committing the offense more than once;

e) The bribe has a value of between ten million dong and under fifty million dong;

f) Causing other serious consequences.

3. Committing the crime in one of the following circumstances, the offenders shall be sentenced to between thirteen and twenty years of imprisonment:

a) The bribe has a value of between fifty million dong and under three hundred million dong;

b) Causing other very serious consequences.

4. Committing the crime in one of the following circumstances, the offenders shall be sentenced to twenty years of imprisonment, life imprisonment or capital punishment:

a) The bribe has a value of three hundred million dong or more;

b) Causing other particularly serious consequences.

5. The offenders may also be subject to a fine of between one and five times the value of the bribe.

6. Persons who are coerced to offer bribes but take initiative in reporting them before being detected may be exempt from penal liability and have part of or the entire property offered as bribes returned.

Article 290. – Acting as intermediaries for bribery

1. Those who act as intermediaries for bribery and the bribe has a value of between five hundred thousand dong and under ten million dong, or under five hundred thousand dong but causes serious consequences, or commit the offense more than once, shall be sentenced to between six months? And five years of imprisonment.

2. Committing the crime in one of the following circumstances, the offenders shall be sentenced to between three and ten years of imprisonment:

a) In an organized manner;

b) Employing treacherous tricks;

c) Knowing that the bribes are State property;

d) Committing the offense more than once;

e) The bribe has a value of between ten million dong and under fifty million dong;

f) Causing other serious consequences.

3. Committing the crime in one of the following circumstances, the offenders shall be sentenced to between eight years? And fifteen years of imprisonment:

a) The bribe has a value of between fifty million dong and under three hundred million dong;

b) Causing other very serious consequences.

4. Committing the crime in one of the following circumstances, the offenders shall be sentenced to between twelve and twenty years of imprisonment:

a) The bribe has a value of three hundred million dong or more;

b) Other particularly serious consequences are caused.

5. The offenders may also be subject to a fine of between one and five times the value of the bribe.

6. The bribery intermediaries who take initiative in reporting such before being detected shall be exempt from penal liability.

(Bill No. 29/2002)

An Act to amend the Prevention of Corruption Act (Chapter 241 of the 1993 Revised Edition) and to make related amendments to the Home Affairs Uniformed Services Superannuation Act (Chapter 126B of the 2002 Revised Edition) and the Pension Fund Act (Chapter 224A of the 1996 Revised Edition).

Be it enacted by the President with the advice and consent of the Parliament of Singapore, as follows:

Short title and commencement

1. This Act may be cited as the Prevention of Corruption (Amendment) Act 2002 and shall come into operation on such date as the Minister may, by notification in the Gazette, appoint.

Amendment of section 2

2. Section 2 of the Prevention of Corruption Act (referred to in this Act as the principal Act) is amended 

(a) By inserting, immediately after the definition of “agent”, the following definition:

“ “CPIB officer” means a public officer in the Corrupt Practices Investigation Service (Junior) Scheme of Service or in the Corrupt Practices Investigation Service (Senior) Scheme of Service;”;

(b) By inserting, immediately after the definition of “gratification”, the following definitions:

““INVEST Fund” means the INVEST Fund established under Part III of the Home Affairs Uniformed Services Superannuation Act (Cap. 126B);

“Member” means a member of the Scheme established under this Act;” and

(c) By inserting, immediately after the definition of “public body”, the following definitions:

““Scheme” means the Occupational Superannuation Scheme established by regulations made under section 4A;

“service” means regular service (whether part-time or fulltime) as a CPIB officer;”

New sections 4A to 4F

3. The principal Act is amended by inserting, immediately after section 4, the following sections:

“Establishment of Occupational Superannuation Scheme

4A.(1) The Minister shall, by regulations, establish an Occupational Superannuation Scheme for the benefit of all CPIB officers appointed on or after 1st November 2001, who will be the members of the Scheme.

(2) The regulations made under subsection (1) shall provide for the payment of 

(a) any gratuity, allowance, superannuation or other like benefit to members of the Scheme, or to their legal personal representatives or dependants, on the death of the members in the service or on the resignation, retirement or discharge of the members from the service;

(b) any pension, gratuity, allowance, compensation or other benefit in respect of the death of or injuries received by any member of the Scheme in and which are attributable to service; and

(c) Any allowance, subsidy or other benefit to such former members of the Scheme as may be prescribed after their retirement from the service.

(3) The regulations made under subsection (1) may provide for

(a) The payment of contributions in respect of each member;

(b) The age or ages at which a member may retire or be required to retire from the service;

(c) the appointment of award officers to assess, award and pay pensions, gratuities and allowances and other like benefits under the Scheme and to otherwise administer the Scheme; and

(d) The bringing of appeals against decisions of award officers and the appointment of one or more persons to hear such appeals and review the decisions of award officers.

(4) In making regulations under subsection (1), the Minister shall also provide for 

(a) Every CPIB officer who is appointed before 1st November 2001 and who, immediately before that date, is eligible (whether on retirement or in respect of death or injury in or attributable to service) for any pension, gratuity or other allowance under the Pensions Act (Cap. 225); and

(b) Every CPIB officer who is appointed before 1st November 2001 to the service on a contract for a term and who, immediately before that date, is eligible for any gratuity or other like benefit under the contract, an option to join the Scheme as a member and for the terms and conditions of such an option.

(5) The regulations made in relation to CPIB officers referred to in subsection (4) shall provide 

(a) in the case of an officer referred to in subsection (4)(a), that any such officer who opts to join the Scheme shall cease to be eligible to benefits under the Pensions Act but shall remain eligible under the Scheme to benefits not less in value than the amount of any pension, gratuity or other allowance for which he would have been granted under the Pensions Act if he retired from the service, or was injured or died in service, on the date immediately before his joining the Scheme; and

(b) in the case of an officer referred to in subsection (4) (b), that any such officer who opts to join the Scheme shall remain eligible to benefits not less in value than the amount of any gratuity or other like benefit for which he would have been granted under his contract if he had completed his term of service under the contract on the date immediately before his joining the Scheme.

(6) Any option exercised by any CPIB officer before 1st November 2001 to join or not to join the Scheme shall be deemed to be exercised in accordance with the regulations made under subsection (1) in relation to CPIB officers referred to in subsection (4).

Benefits not as of right, etc.

4B. (1) No member shall have an absolute right to compensation for past services or to any pension, gratuity, allowance or other benefit under the Scheme.

(2) Nothing in this Act shall limit the right of the Public Service Commission, or any of its delegates, to dismiss any CPIB officer who is a member from the service without compensation.

(3) Subject to Article 113 of the Constitution, where it is established to the satisfaction of an award officer that a member has been guilty of negligence, irregularity or misconduct, it shall be lawful for the award officer to reduce or altogether withhold the pension, gratuity, allowance or other benefit for which the member would but for this section have become eligible under the Scheme.

Non-assign ability or attachment of benefits, etc.

4C. (1) No payments, allowance or other benefit payable under the Scheme (whether on death, retirement or resignation of a member or otherwise), and no contribution by the Government made under the Scheme, and no interest thereon shall be assignable or transferable, or liable to be garnished, attached, sequestered or levied upon for or in respect of any debt or claim, other than —

(a) A debt due to the Government; or

(b) An order of court for the payment of periodical sums of money towards the maintenance of the wife or former wife or minor child (whether legitimate or not) of the member to whom the payment, allowance or other benefit has been granted.

(2) Subject to the provisions of any regulations made under section 4A, all moneys paid or payable under the Scheme on the death of a member thereof —

(a) Shall be deemed to be subject to a trust in favor of the persons entitled thereto under the will or intestacy of such deceased member;

(b) Shall not be deemed to form part of his estate or be subject to the payment of his debts; and

(c) Shall be deemed to be property passing on his death for the purposes of the Estate Duty Act (Cap. 96).

Recovery of benefits granted in ignorance of disqualifying facts

4D. It shall be a condition of the grant of every pension, gratuity, allowance or other benefit under the Scheme that the Government may recover, cancel or reduce the grant if it is shown to have been obtained by the willful suppression of material facts or to have been granted in ignorance of facts which, had they been known before the retirement or resignation of the member, would have justified his dismissal or a reduction of his salary.

Effect of bankruptcy and conviction on Scheme benefits

4E. (1) No contribution by the Government made under the Scheme and no interest thereon shall be subject to the debts of any member thereof, nor shall such contributions and interest pass to the Official Assignee on the bankruptcy of the member.

(2) If a member is adjudicated a bankrupt or is declared insolvent by a court of law, such contributions and interest shall be deemed to be excluded from the property of the bankrupt for the purposes of the Bankruptcy Act (Cap. 20).

(3) If, at the date of his retirement or resignation from the service, any member has been adjudged a bankrupt by judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction, whether in Singapore or elsewhere, and he has not obtained his discharge from such adjudication or declaration, it shall be lawful for an award officer to refuse to grant any pension, gratuity or other allowance which would, if not for this subsection, be granted.

(4) If any person to whom a pension or other allowance has been granted under this Act —

(a) Is adjudicated a bankrupt by judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction, whether in Singapore or elsewhere; or

(b) is sentenced to death or penal servitude or any term of imprisonment, by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether in Singapore or elsewhere, for any crime or offence, the Minister may direct that such pension or allowance shall forthwith

Cease, and thereupon such pension or allowance shall cease accordingly.

(5) Where, by reason of bankruptcy of a member or former member, a pension, gratuity or allowance is not granted or where a pension or allowance ceases by virtue of a direction under subsection (4)(a), it shall be lawful for the Minister to cause all or any part of the moneys to which such person would have been entitled by way of pension, gratuity or allowance, had he not become a bankrupt or sentenced for any crime or offence, as the case may be, to be paid to, or applied for the maintenance and personal support or benefit of, all or any (to the exclusion of the others) of the following persons in such proportions and manner as the Minister thinks proper:

(a) The member or former member himself; and

(b) His spouse, child or children.

(6) The Minister may exercise his power under subsection (5), from time to time, during the remainder of the member’s or former member’s life, or during such shorter period or periods, either continuous or discontinuous, as the Minister thinks fit.

(7) When a person to whom a pension or allowance has not been granted or whose pension or allowance has ceased under this section obtains a full and proper discharge from his bankruptcy, his pension or allowance shall be restored to him with effect from the date of such discharge.

(8) For the purposes of subsection (5), moneys applied for the discharge of the debts of the member or former member, as the case may be, shall be regarded as applied for his benefit.

(9) Notwithstanding subsection (4), any pension or allowance that has ceased by virtue of a direction under subsection (4) (b) shall be restored with retrospective effect in the case of a person who, after conviction, at any time receives a free pardon.

(10) Where a pension or allowance ceases by virtue of a direction under subsection (4)(b), it shall be lawful for the Minister to cause all or any part of moneys to which the person would have been entitled by way of pension or allowance to be paid to or applied for the benefit of his spouse, child or children, or after the expiration of his sentence, also for the benefit of himself, in the same manner precisely and subject to the same qualifications and restrictions as in the case of bankruptcy provided in subsection (5).

Scheme to be met out of Invest Fund

4F. (1) There shall be paid into the Invest Fund —

(a) Such sums appropriated from the Consolidated Fund and authorized to be paid into the INVEST Fund by or under any written law to enable that Fund to meet its liabilities under this Act; and

(b) such sum from the Pension Fund established by the Pension Fund Act (Cap. 224A) as the Minister for Finance may determine as the value of that part of the Pension Fund relating to all those CPIB officers referred to in section 4A (4) (a) who exercise an option in favor of joining the Scheme in accordance with the regulations under section 4A.

(2) The INVEST Fund comprising moneys referred to in subsection (1) shall be applied to meet the following purposes only:

(a) The payment of any pension, gratuity, allowance, compensation or other like benefit granted under the Scheme; and

(b) such other expenses relating to the granting of any pension, gratuity, allowance, compensation or other like benefit under the Scheme and expressly provided by regulations made under this Act to be met from the INVEST Fund.

(3) the moneys referred to in subsection (1) shall be paid into the INVEST Fund as capital money, and shall not be used to make payment of any dividend under the Scheme.”

Miscellaneous amendments

4. The principal Act is amended —

(a) By inserting, immediately above section 1, the following heading:

“Part I Preliminary”;

(b) By inserting, immediately below section 2, the following heading:

“Part II Appointment of Staff and Personnel Matters”;

(c) By inserting, immediately above section 5, the following heading:

“Part III Offences and Penalties”;

(d) By inserting, immediately below section 14, the following heading:

“Part IV Powers of Arrest and Investigation”;

(e) By inserting, immediately below section 22, the following heading:

“Part V Evidence”; and

(f) By inserting, immediately below section 25, the following heading:

“Part VI Miscellaneous”.

Related amendments to Home Affairs Uniformed Services Superannuation Act

5. The Home Affairs Uniformed Services Superannuation Act (Cap. 126B) is amended —

(a) By inserting, immediately after the definition of “prison officer” in section 2, the following definition:

““Scheme” means the Occupational Superannuation Scheme established under the Prevention of Corruption Act (Cap. 241) for the benefit of officers in the Corrupt Practices Investigation Schemes of Service;”

(b) By deleting paragraph (e) of section 3(1) and substituting the following paragraph:

“(e) All intelligence officers who are appointed on or after the commencement of the regulations, including those who were members immediately before becoming

Intelligence officers,”

(c) by inserting, immediately after subsection (2) of section 12, the following subsection: “(2A) The moneys referred to in subsections (1)(a) and (b) and (2) shall be paid into the Invest Fund as capital money, and shall not be used to make payment of any dividend under the Invest Plan.”;

(d) By deleting the words “, but shall be administered separately from all other Government funds” in section 12(3);

(e) By repealing section 13 and substituting the following section:

“Purposes of Fund

13.(1) Subject to subsection (2) and section 4F(2) of the Prevention of Corruption Act (Cap. 241), the moneys in the Fund shall only be withdrawn and applied to meet any one or more of the following purposes:

(a) The payment of any pension, gratuity, allowance, compensation or other like benefit granted under the Invest Plan or the Scheme;

(b) All expenses incidental to or arising from the administration, investment and management of moneys in the Fund; and

(c) such other expenses relating to the granting of any pension, gratuity, allowance, compensation or other like benefit under the INVEST Plan or the Scheme, as the case may be, and expressly provided by written law to be met out of the Fund.

(2) The Fund comprising 

(a) such sums appropriated from the Consolidated Fund and authorized to be paid into the Fund by or under any written law to meet its liabilities under the INVEST Plan or the Scheme; and

(b) the sum referred to in section 12(2), shall not be withdrawn and applied to meet the payment of any pension, gratuity, allowance, compensation or other like benefit granted under the Scheme, or such other expenses relating to the granting of any pension, gratuity, allowance, compensation or other like benefit under the Scheme.”;

(f) By deleting paragraph (b) of section 16(2) and substituting the following paragraph: “(b) in respect of any officer referred to in section 4A (4) (a) of the Prevention of Corruption Act (Cap. 241) who opts to join the Scheme under that

Act.”;

(g) By deleting paragraph (a) of section 20(1) and substituting the following paragraph: “(a) to advise on the interest rates for the purposes of the 25

INVEST Plan or the Scheme;”

(h) by inserting, immediately after subsection (2) of section 23, the following subsection: “(2A) Notwithstanding subsection (1), where an amendment is made to the Scheme, and the amendment affects the cost of benefits payable under the Scheme or creates an initial unfunded liability, the Minister charged with the responsibility for the Scheme may, for the purposes of section 12(1)(a), appoint a person to make an examination and report on the state of the Fund.”;

(I) by deleting the words “or (2)” in the 1st line of section 23(3) and substituting the words “, (2) or (2A)”;

(j) By inserting, immediately after the words “the Minister” in the 3rd line of section 23(3), the words “referred to in subsection (2) or (2A), as the case may be,”

(k) by inserting, immediately after the words “The Minister” in section 23(4), the words “referred to in subsection (2) or (2A), as the case may be,”; and

(l) By inserting, immediately after the words “INVEST Plan” in the following provisions, the words “or the Scheme”: Sections 15(1) (5th line) and 16(1) (penultimate line).

Related amendment to Pension Fund Act

(Enacted in: April, 1992)

Chapter one the socialist republic of Vietnam

The political regime

Article 8
All State organs, cadres and employees must show respect for the people, devotedly serve them, maintain close links with them, listen to their opinions and submit themselves to their control; all manifestations of bureaucratism, arrogance, arbitrariness and corruption shall be vigorously opposed.

Chapter Eight the government

Article 112
Following are the duties and powers of the Government:

1. To direct the work of the ministries, the organs of ministerial rank and the organs of the Government, the People’s Committees at all levels; to build and consolidate the unified system of the apparatus of State administration from the centre to the grassroots; to guide and control the People’s Councils in their implementation of the directives of superior organs of State administration; to create favorable conditions for the People’s Councils to fulfill their duties and exercise their powers as laid down by law, to train, foster, dispose and use State officials and employees;

2. To ensure the implementation of the Constitution and the law in State organs, economic bodies, social organizations, units of the armed forces, and among the citizens; to organize and direct propaganda and educational work among the people concerning the Constitution and the law;

3. to present draft laws, decree-laws and other projects to the National Assembly and its Standing Committee;

4. To ensure the overall management of the building and development of the national economy; to carry into effect national financial and monetary policies; to manage and ensure the effective use of property in the ownership of the entire people; to promote the development of culture, education, health care, science and technology; to carry out the plan for socio-economic development and to give effect to the State budget;

5. To take measures to protect the rights and legitimate interests of the citizen, to create conditions for him to exercise his rights and fulfill his duties, to protect the property and interests of the State and society; to protect the environment;

6. To consolidate and strengthen national defense by the entire people and the people’s security; to ensure national security and social order; to build the people’s armed forces; to carry into effect general mobilization, to proclaim the state of emergency and all other necessary measures to defend the country;

7. To organize and direct the conduct of State inventories and statistics; State inspection and control; to fight bureaucratism and corruption in the State machinery; to settle complaints and denunciations by citizens;

8. To ensure the overall management of the State’s external relations; to sign, join, approve international agreements on behalf of the Government; to direct the implementation of international agreements subscribed to or joined by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; to protect the interests of the State and the legitimate interests of Vietnamese citizens and organizations in foreign countries;

9. To implement social policies, nationalities policies, policies on religion;

10. To take decisions in the adjustment of the boundaries of administrative units below the level of the province and the city under direct central control;

11. To coordinate its efforts with those of the Vietnam Fatherland Front and all mass organizations in the fulfillment of their duties and exercise of their rights; to create conditions for their effective functioning.

Police Background Check Procedures

Where?

•  Requests within Vietnam are made via applications to one of 63 provincial justice departments.
•  They must be made in person or through a third party with a valid power of attorney.
•  Vietnamese citizens living overseas may request the “Justice Record Check” via an authorized person in Vietnam with a power of attorney.

What must the applicant supply?

•  Two copies of the applicant’s household book
•  Two copies of the applicant’s national ID card
•  A third party must present two copies of the legal power of attorney signed by the applicant and certified by a representative of the Vietnamese Embassy in their current country of residence.
•  All original documents should be submitted for verification.

What are the costs / turnaround times?

•  VND 100,000 when residing in Vietnam and VND 200,000 when residing abroad.
•  A translation service is available ranging from between VND 100,000 and VND 200,000 per
page.
•  The record check takes approximately three weeks to complete

Contact Details

Department of Justice office in an individual’s district or official residence–there are 63 in Vietnam.
The official residence is that registered in the “household registry” (Ho Khau)
Details are provided here for the Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh offices:
Hanoi
1B TranPhu Street,
Ha Dong District,Hanoi
Vietnam
Tel: 84-4-3354 6163
Fax: 84-4-3354 6155
Ho Chi Minh
142-143 Pasteur Street,
Ward 6, District 3,
Ho Chi Minh City,
Vietnam
Tel: 84-8-3829 0230
Fax: 84-8-3824 3155
Embassy of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
12-14 Victoria Road
W8 5RD
United Kingdom
Tel: 020 7937 1912
Fax: 020 7565 3853
Email: vanphong@vietnamembassy.org.uk
Website: www.vietnamembassy.org.uk
•  Requests within Vietnamare made via applications to one of 63 provincial justice departments.
•  They must be made in person or through a third party with a valid power of attorney.
•  Vietnamese citizens living overseas may request the “Justice Record Check” via an authorized
person in Vietnam with a power of attorney.

Summary

Vietnam GDP Last Previous Highest Lowest Unit
GDP 171.39 155.82 171.39 6.30 USD Billion
GDP Growth Rate 6.03 6.96 8.46 3.14 percent
GDP Annual Growth Rate 6.03 6.96 8.48 3.12 percent
GDP Constant Prices 534573.00 534573.00 2695796.00 480455.00 VND Billion
Gross National Product 3102553.00 2660076.00 3102553.00 39284.00 VND Billion
GDP per capita 1028.62 986.01 1028.62 262.95 USD
Gross Fixed Capital Formation 844474.89 785337.34 844474.89 5495.00 VND Billion
GDP per capita PPP 5124.64 4912.32 5124.64 1501.14 USD

Address Format

RECIPIENT
[BUILDING]
[SUBBUILDING]
[HOUSE_NUMBER,] STREET_NAME
[DEPENDENT_LOCALITY-DOUBLE_DEPENDENT_LOCALITY]
LOCALITY-POSTALCODE
VANUATU

Sample

An Hoa Hotel
2, QUANG TRUNG STREET
HANOI-116806
VIET NAM

Risk

Sovereign risk

The government will continue to post substantial fiscal deficits in 2015-16. Although stronger economic growth and privatisation efforts will boost revenue, spending on infrastructure and social welfare will continue to rise rapidly. The government’s potential need to cover the liabilities of struggling state-owned enterprises (SOEs) is a constraint on the rating.

Banking sector risk

The outlook for banks has improved given stronger economic growth prospects, which will help debtors to pay off their loans. However, concerns remain about the true level of non-performing loans (NPLs) in the banking sector. The SBV puts the NPL ratio at just over 3%, but the real level is likely to be in high single to double digits.

Political risk

Although disputes over social issues will continue to fuel discontent, there is little prospect that an organised opposition will emerge and lead to instability. The government will continue to prevent any unrest from escalating to ensure broad political stability. The ruling Communist Party of Vietnam’s confidence in the prime minister, Nguyen Tan Dung, has improved in tandem with the economy’s recovery.

Economic structure risk

The government is overhauling inefficient and heavily indebted SOEs, but the process will be difficult and politically fraught, and progress will be slow. The economy will suffer in 2015-16 from oil prices remaining below their 2014 levels, but it is far less reliant on oil exports than it was only a decade ago.

Travel Risk

Security

The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The purpose of this Travel Advice is to provide up-to-date information to enable you to make well-informed decisions.

Crime

Petty crime against tourists is increasing, particularly in the larger cities. Although violent crimes such as armed robbery are still relatively rare in Vietnam, perpetrators have grown increasingly bold. Knives and razors have been used in attempted robberies in Ho Chi Minh City. Motorcyclists grab bags and other valuables from pedestrians and from passengers or drivers on motorbikes; this often results in injury to the victim. Hotels and tourist areas are more likely to be targeted by criminals. Thefts also occur on crowded buses and trains and in shopping centres and markets. Bag slashing is a frequent occurrence in crowded streets and markets. Avoid showing signs of affluence and ensure that your personal belongings and passports and other travel documents are secure at all times.

When leaving the airport, you should only use authorized airport taxis or hotel transportation. Authorized taxi companies usually have operators posted at airports who are responsible for monitoring taxi services. These companies publish the taxi driver’s name and vehicle number on a card that should be affixed to the windshield (in front of the driver’s seat). Individuals posing as taxi drivers have targeted foreign visitors at Hanoi airport and robbed them by forcing them to withdraw money from automatic banking machines. Travellers have also been robbed by drivers who greeted them upon arrival with a placard showing their name. If you are expecting to be picked up, ask for your driver’s name, phone number and licence plate number before you travel. Be familiar with your hotel’s address and neighbouring landmarks because taxi drivers have taken unaware visitors to the wrong establishment, in order to receive a commission. Never share a taxi with a stranger.

Threats of physical injury related to personal disputes occasionally occur. If you are in this position, contact the local police and the closest Canadian government office immediately.

Credit card

Fraud

Both tourists and expatriates have been targeted by credit card forgery crime. Avoid using your credit card in smaller establishments, and pay careful attention when others are handling your card. Consider obtaining a second card, with a low credit limit, for use during your stay in Asia.

Scams

Tourists have been victims of gambling scams in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City (particularly in the Pham Ngu Lao neighbourhood). This scam usually starts with a friendly invitation to someone’s home to meet a relative interested in visiting or studying in Canada. While the visitor is waiting for this individual, a casual game of cards will begin. Even though they started with only a small wager, victims have reported losing thousands of dollars over the course of an evening.

Demonstrations

Public demonstrations are generally not tolerated in Vietnam and can carry heavy penalties, including lengthy jail sentences. Avoid demonstrations and follow the advice of local authorities.

Transportation

Traffic accidents occur frequently, often causing death or serious injury. Motorcycle riders and pedestrians are common victims. Driving standards are poor, vehicles and roads are often badly maintained, and roads in major cities are congested. Rain can flood potholes and roads, especially those in the north, can become impassable during the rainy season. Travelling after dark is dangerous.

Driving without a Vietnamese driver’s licence is illegal. If you are involved in a traffic accident, you may face criminal charges and have to pay compensation if someone is injured. You may be prohibited from leaving the country before paying this compensation. Hiring a car and driver for personal transportation is strongly recommended. Rent a motorcycle only if you are accustomed to local driving standards and be aware that insurance is not included with these rentals. Motorcycle taxis (known as œxe oms) are unsafe and should be avoided.

Bus accidents are not uncommon. A number of fatal boat accidents have occurred in past years, some in Halong Bay. Ensure that your tour operator follows up-to-date safety regulations.

Keep ticket stubs at all times when travelling by train, as they are required when exiting the train station. Passengers without a ticket stub will be required to pay the fare again.

See Transportation Safety in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.

Piracy

Pirate attacks occur in coastal waters and, in some cases, further out at sea. Mariners should take appropriate precautions. For additional information, consult the Live Piracy & Armed Robbery Report, published by the International Maritime Bureau.

General safety information

Travel near military facilities in some parts of the central highlands and in some border areas is restricted.

Unexploded landmines are a hazard in some rural areas of central Vietnam.

Improper farming and production practices, as well as overall poor hygiene in food preparation, make food safety a concern. Exercise a high degree of caution, particularly when consuming street food and beverages containing ice cubes. Avoid drinking non-bottled water.

Never leave your food or drink unattended or in the care of strangers. Be wary of accepting snacks, beverages, gum or cigarettes from new acquaintances, as they may contain drugs that could put you at risk of sexual assault and robbery. Do not purchase liquor from street vendors, as the quality cannot be assured.

Hotel rooms and electronic communications may be monitored. Hotel staff require your passport in order to register it with local authorities. The staff may insist on keeping your passport until your departure, but there is no legal reason for them to do so. You may request the return of your passport once it has been registered.

Emergency services

Dial 113 to reach police, 114 for firefighters and 115 for ambulance.

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