UGANDA BACKGROUND CHECK

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GENERAL INFORMATION

GDP USD19.881bn (World ranking 104, World Bank 2012)
Population 36.35 million (World ranking 36, World Bank 2012)
Form of state Republic
Head of government Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI
Next elections 2016, presidential and legislative

 

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Data Protection

Data Protection Laws Not Found

(Commencement:12 June, 1970)

An act to provide for the more effectual prevention of corruption.

1. Interpretation.

In this Act,unless the context otherwise requires—

(a) “agent” means any person employed by or acting for another, and includes a trustee,administrator and executor, and a person employed in the public service or under any corporation or public body ,and for the purpose of section 5 includes a subcontractor and any person employed by or acting for the subcontractor;

(b)“currency point” has the value specified in the Schedule to this Act;

(c)“gratification” includes-

(i) money or any gift ,loan, fee, reward, commission, valuable security or other property or interest in property of any description, whether movable or immovable;

(ii)any office ,employ or contract;

(iii)any payment, release, discharge or liquidation of any loan, obligation or other liability ,whether in whole or in part;

(iv)any other service, favor, or advantage of any description, including protection from any penalty or disability incurred or apprehended or from any action or proceeding of a disciplinary or penal nature, whether or not already instituted, and including the exercise or the forbearance from the exercise of any right or any official power or duty; and

(v)any offer, undertaking or promise of any gratification within the meaning of subparagraphs(i),(ii),(iii)and(iv);

(d)“principal” includes an employer, a beneficiary under a trust, and a trust estate as though it were a person and any person beneficially interested in the estate of a deceased person as though the estate were a person and in the case of a person employed in the public service or a public body includes the Government or the public body, as the case may be;

(e)“public body” includes the Government, any department, services or undertaking of the Government, the East African Community, its institutions and corporations, the Cabinet, Parliament, any court ,district administration, a district council and any committee of any such council, any corporation, committee, board, commission or similar body whether corporate or incorporate established by an Act of Parliament for the purposes of any written law relating to the public health or public undertaking of public utility ,education or for promotion of sports, literature ,science, arts or any other purpose for the benefit of the public or any section of the public to administer funds or property belonging to or granted by the Government or the East African Community, its institutions or its corporations or money raised by public subscription, rates, taxes, cess or charges in pursuance of any written law, any political party, a trade union, any society registered under the Cooperative Societies Act and any council, board, committee or society established by an Act of Parliament for the benefit, regulation and control of any profession;

(f)“special investigator” means a person appointed under section 29.

2. Corruption.

Any person who shall, by himself or herself or by or in conjunction with any other person-

(a)corruptly solicit or receive, or agree to receive for himself or herself, or for any other person; or

(b)corruptly give ,promise or offer to any person whether for the benefit of that person or of another person,

any gratification as an inducement to, or reward for, or otherwise on account of any member ,officer or servant of a public body doing or forbearing to do anything in respect of any matter or transaction ,actual or proposed, in which that public body is concerned, commits an offence.

3.Corrupt transactions with agents.

If-

(a)any agent corruptly accepts or obtains ,or agrees to accept or attempts to obtain, from any person , for himself or herself or for any other person, any gratification as an inducement or reward for doing or forbearing to do, or for having done or forborne to do, any act in relation to his or her principle’s affairs or business, or for showing or forbearing to show favour or disfavour to any person in relation to his or her principal’s affairs or business;

(b)any person corruptly gives or agrees to give or offers any gratification to any agent as an inducement or reward for doing or forbearing to do ,or for having done or forborne to do any act in relation to his or her principal’s affairs or business, or for showing or forbearing to show favour or disfavour to any person in relation to his or her principal’s affairs or business; or

(c)any person knowingly gives to an agent ,or if an agent knowingly uses, with intent to deceive his or her principal, any receipt, account or other document in respect of which the principal is interested, and which contains any statement which is false or erroneous or defective in any material particular, and which to his or her knowledge is intended to mislead the principal,

he or she commits an offence.

4.corruptly procuring withdrawal of tenders

A person –

(a)who, with intent to obtain from any public body a contract for performing any work ,providing any service ,doing anything or supplying any article, material or substance ,offers any gratification to any person who has made a tender for the contract ,as an inducement or a reward for his or her withdrawing the tender; or

(b)who solicits or accepts any gratification as an inducement or reward for his or her withdrawing a tender made by him or her for such contract,

commits an offence.

5.Bribery of member of republic body.

A person –

(a)who offers any gratification to any member of a public body as an inducement or reward for-

(i)the member ‘s voting or abstaining from voting at any meeting of that public body in favour of or against any measure, resolution or question submitted to that public body;

(ii)the member’s performing, or abstaining from performing, or his or her aid in procuring, expediting, delaying, hidering or preventing the performance of, any official act; or

(iii)the member’s aid in procuring or preventing the passing of any vote or the granting of any contract or advantage in favour of any person ;or

(b)who, being such member as is referred to in paragraph(a)of this section, solicits or accepts any gratifications as an inducement or reward for any such act, or any such abstaining ,as is referred to in subparagraphs(i)(ii)and(iii) of that paragraph,

commits an offence.

6. Punishment for offences under section 2,3,4 or 5.

(1)A person convicted of an offence under section 2,3,4 or 5 is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years or to a fine not exceeding three hundred currency points or to both.

(2)Notwithstanding subsection(1),a person convicted of an offence under section 2 or 3 is, where the matter or transaction in relation to which the offence was committed was a contract or a proposal for a contract with any public body or a subcontract to execute any work comprised in such a contract, liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twelve years or to a fine not exceeding three hundred and fifty currency points or to both.

7.When penalty to be imposed in addition to other punishment.

Where a court convicts any person of an offence committed by the acceptance of any gratification in contravention of any provision of this Act ,then, if that gratification is a sum of money or if the value of that gratification can be assessed, the court shall, in addition to imposing on that person any other punishment, order him or her to pay as a penalty, within such time as may be specified in the order , a sum which is equal to the amount of the gratification or is, in the opinion of the court, the value of that gratification, and any such penalty shall be recoverable as a fine.

8. Principal may recover amount of secret gift.

(1) Where any gratification has, in contravention of this Act, been given by any person to an agent, the principal may recover as a civil debt the amount or the money value of the gratification either from the agent or from the person who gave the gratification to the agent , and no conviction or acquittal of the accused person in respect of an offence under this Act shall operate as a bar to proceedings for the recovery of the amount or money value.

(2)Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prejudice or affect any right which any principle may have under any written law or rule of law to recover from his or her agent any money or property.

9.Acceptor of gratification to be guilty notwithstanding that purpose not carried out, etc.

(1)Where, in any proceedings against any agent for any offence under section 3(a), it is proved that he or she corruptly accepted, obtained or agreed to accept or attempted to obtain any gratification having reason to believe or suspect that the gratification was offered as an inducement or reward for his or her doing or forbearing to do any act or for showing or forbearing to show any favour or disfavour to any person in relation to his or her principal’s affairs or business, he or she did not have the power, right or opportunity so to do, show or forbear or that he or she accepted the gratification without intending so to do, show or forbear or that he or she did not in fact so do, show or forbear or that the act, favour or disfavour was not in relation to his or her principal’s affairs or business.

(2)Where, in any proceedings against any person for any offence under section 3(b),it is proved that he or she corruptly gave, agreed to give or offered any gratification to any agent as an inducement or reward for doing or forbearing to do any act or for showing or forbearing to show any favour or disfavour to any person having reason to believe or suspect that the agent had the power, right or opportunity so to do, show or forbear and that the act, favour or disfavour was in relation to his or her principal’s affairs or business, he or she commits an offence under that section notwithstanding that the agent had no power, right or opportunity or that the act, favour or disfavour was not in relation to his or her principal’s affairs or business.

10. Presumption or corruption in certain cases.

Where, in any proceedings against a person for an offence under section 2 or 3, it is proved that any gratification has been paid or given to or received by a person employed by a public body, by or from a person or agent or a person who has or seeks to have any dealing with any public body, the gratification shall be deemed to have been paid or given and received corruptly as an inducement or reward as hereinbefore mentioned unless the contrary is proved.

11. Evidence of pecuniary resources or property

(1)In any trial by a court of an offence under this Act, the fact that an accused person is in possession, for which he or she cannot satisfactorily account, of pecuniary resources or property disproportionate to his or her known sources of income, or that he or she had, at or about the time of the alleged offence, obtained an accretion of his or her pecuniary resources or property for which he or she cannot satisfactorily account, may be proved and may be taken into consideration by the court as corroboration the testimony of any witness in the trial or inquiry that the accused person accepted or obtained or agreed to accept or attempted to obtain any gratification and as showing that the gratification was accepted or obtained or agreed to be accepted or attempted to be obtained corruptly as an inducement or reward.

(2)An accused person shall, for the purposes of subsection (1), be deemed to be in possession of resources or property or to have obtained an accretion to resources or property where the resources or property are held or the accretion is obtained by any other person whom, having regard to his or her relationship to the accused person or to any other circumstances, there is reason to believe to be holding the resources or property or to have obtained the accretion in trust for or on behalf of the accused person or as a gift from the accused person.

12.Evidence of accomplice.

Notwithstanding any rule of practice or written law to the contrary, no witness in any trial by a court of an offence under this Act shall be regarded by the court as being unworthy of credit by reason only of any payment or delivery by him or her or on his or on his or her behalf of any gratification to an agent or member or a public body.

13. Special powers of investigation of Director of Public Prosecutions.

(1) Notwithstanding anything in any other law contained, the Director of Public Prosecutions, if satisfied that there are reasonable grounds for suspecting that an offence under this Act has been committed by any person, may by order authorities an police officer of or above the rank of assistant superintendent named in the order or any special investigator so named to investigate any bank account, share account or purchase account of that person and such authority shall be sufficient warrant for the production of such accounts and documents as may be required for scrutiny by the officer so authorized.

(2)Any person who fails to disclose such information to a person so authorized commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years or to a fine not exceeding ninety currency points or to both.

14. Court to restrict disposal of assets or bank accounts of accused, etc.

(1)any court may, upon application by the Director of Public Prosecutions, issue an order placing such restrictions as appear to the court to be reasonable, on the operation of any bank account of the accused person or a person suspected of having committed an offence or any person associated with such an offence or on the disposal of any property of the accused person, the suspected person or a person associated with the offence or the suspected person for the purpose of ensuring the payment of compensation to an victim of the offence or otherwise for the purpose of prevention the dissipation of any monies or other property derived from or related to an offence under this Act.

(2)any restriction imposed under subsection (1) on the operation of bank account of a person shall be limited to such amount as is necessary to compensate the victim of the offence or an amount not exceeding the amount involved in the commission of the offence whichever is the higher; and any money in the account in excess of that amount shall continue to be at the disposal of the person to whom the order under subsection(1) relates.

(3)the order imposing restriction shall be reviewed by the court every six months if still in force.

(4) The order shall, unless earlier revoked, expire six months after the death of the person against whom it was made.

(5) The Director of Public Prosecutions shall ensure that any order issued by a court under subsection(1)is served on the banker, or accused person or suspected person and any other person whom the order relates.

(6) Any person who knowingly fails to comply with an order issued under this section commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding one hundred and fifty currency points or imprisonment not exceeding five years or both.

15. Payment of compensation out of resources of convicted person.

(1) Where it is proved to the satisfaction of the court that a principal whose agent has been convicted of an offence under this Act has suffered loss as a result of the commission of the offence, then the court may order any sums standing to the credit of the convicted person or any property which the court is satisfied was acquired directly from nay gratification obtained by the agent to be applied in making good the loss; and in the case of property which is not money, the court may order the sale of the property and the proceeds of sale paid to the principal.

(2) Any monies remaining from the proceeds of sale of property after payment to the principal of any loss under subsection(1) shall be refunded to the convicted person.

(3)Any transfer of any property contrary to any restriction imposed under section 14 is void and, in particular, the court may by order set aside any transaction aimed at defeating the purpose of subsection(1).

(4) Any person who obstructs the implementation of the order of a court under subsection (1) or (3) commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding one hundred and fifty currency points or imprisonment not exceeding five years or both.

16. Director of Public Prosecution’s power to order inspection of documents.

The Director of Public Prosecution may, if he or she considers that any evidence of the commission of an offence under this Act by a person employed by a public body is likely to be found in any documents relating to that person, his or her spouse or child or to a person reasonably believes by the Director of Public Prosecution to be a trustee or agent for the person, by order authorize any police officer of or above the rank of assistant superintendent named in the order or any special investigator so named to inspect any such document; and a police officer or special investigator so authorized may, at all reasonable times, enter the place specified in the order and inspect such documents kept in that place and may take copies of any such documents.

17. Order of search and seizure

(1) Whenever it is shown to a chief magistrate, a magistrate grade I or to the Director of Public Prosecution upon information and after such inquiry as he or she thinks necessary that there is reasonable cause to believe that in any place there is any document containing any evidence of the commission of an offence under this Act, the magistrate or the Director of Public Prosecution may, by warrant directed to any police officer, or special investigator, empower that officer or investigator to enter the place by force if necessary and there to search for, seize and detain such document.

(2) Whenever it appears to any police officer not below the rank of inspector that there is reasonable cause to believe that in any place there is concealed or deposited any document containing evidence of the commission of an offence under this Act and the police officer has reasonable grounds for believing that by reason of the delay in obtaining a search warrant the object of the search is likely to be frustrated, he or she may exercise in and in respect of such place all the powers mentioned in subsection (1) in as full and ample a manner as if he or she were empowered to do so by warrant issued under that subsection.

(3) Where any person in or about any place that is searched under subsection (1) or (2) is reasonably suspected of concealing about his or her person any document for which search should be made, that person may be searched and any document so found may be seized and detained; but whenever it is necessary to cause a woman to be searched, the search shall be made by another woman.

(4) For the purposes of subsection (1), the information mentioned in that subsection shall only be acted upon if—

(a) when made to a chide magistrate or a magistrate grade I, it is made on oath; and

(b) when made to the Director of Public Prosecution, it is given by affidavit.

18. Obligation to give information.

Every person required by a police officer or special investigator to give any information on any subject which it is the police officer’s or investigator’s duty to inquire into under this Act and which it is in his or her power to give shall be legally bound to give that information.

19. Obstruction of search, etc.

Any person who—

(a)refuses any police officer or special investigator, authorized to enter or search, access to any place;

(b)assaults, obstructs, hinders or delays any police officer or special investigator in effecting any entrance which he or she is entitled to effect under this Act, or in the execution of any duty imposed or power conferred by this Act;

(c)fail to comply with any lawful demands of a police officer or special investigator in the execution of his or she duty this Act; or

(d)refuse or neglects to give a police officer or special investigator any information which may reasonably commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years or to a fine not exceeding ninety currency points or to both.

20.Director of Public Prosecutions’ powers to obtain information.

(1)In the course of any investigation or proceedings into or relating to an offence by any person employed by any public body under this Act, the director of Public Prosecutions may ,notwithstanding anything in any other written law to the contrary, by written notice-

(a)require that person to furnish a sworn statement in writing enumerating all movable or immovable property belonging to or possessed by the person and by the spouse, sons and daughters of the person, and specifying the date on which each of the properties enumerated was acquired whether by way of purchase, gift, bequest, inheritance or otherwise;

(b)require that person to furnish a sworn statement in writing of any money or other property sent out of Uganda by him or her during such period as may be specified in the notice;

(c)require any other person to furnish a sworn statement in writing enumerating all movable or immovable property belonging to or possessed by that person where the Director of Public Prosecutions has reasonable grounds to believe that the information can assist the investigation;

(d)require the regional commissioner of income tax to furnish, as specified in the notice, all information available to him or her relating to the affairs of any person where the Director of Public Prosecutions has reasonable grounds to believe that the information can assist the investigation and to produce or furnish , as specified in the notice, any document or a certified copy of any document relating to that person which is in his or her possession or under his or her control;

(e)require the Minister responsible for any department ,office or establishment of the Government, or the president ,chairperson, manager or chief executive officers of any other public body or the secretary, manager or principal officer of any company or association or body of persons whether incorporated or not ,or a partner in any document or a certified copy of any document which is in his or her possession or under his or her control ; or

(f)required the manager of any bank to give copies of the accounts of that person or of the spouse or son or daughter of that person at the bank.

(2)Every person to whom a notice is sent by the Director of Public Prosecutions under subsection(1)shall ,notwithstanding any written law or any oath of secrecy to the contrary, comply with the terms of that notice within such time as may be specified in the notice and any person who willfully neglects or fails so to comply commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years or to a fine not exceeding ninety currency points or to both.

(3)the Director of Public Prosecutions may, in the course of any investigation into or relating to an offence under this Act, invite any person who has given a sworn statement under subsection(1)(a)or (b)to give an explanation or amplification of that statement, if he or she considers that it is necessary or desirable so to do.

(4)In any prosecution for an offence under this Act, the swore statement of any person given under subsection(1)(a)or(b)may be used in evidence against him or her.

21.evidence and defense of custom.

(1) in any civil proceeding under this act, evidence shall not be admissible to show that any such gratification as is mentioned in this act is customary in any profession, trade, vocation or calling or in the course of any particular business transaction.

(2) it shall not be a defense to any offence under this act to establish that any such gratification as is mentioned in this act is customary in any profession, trade, vocation or calling, or in the course of any particular business transaction.

22. Duty to arrest.

A person employed by a public body to whom any gratification is corruptly given or offered shall arrest the person who gives or offers the gratification to him or her and take over the person so arrested to the nearest police station; and if he or she fails to do so without reasonable execuse, he or she commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to a fine not exceeding sixty currency points or to both.

23.Protection of informers.

(1) Except as hereafter provided, no complaint as to an offence under this Act shall be admitted in evidence in any civil or criminal proceeding, and no witness shall be obliged or permitted to disclose the name or address of any informer, or state any matter which might lead to his or her discovery.

(2) If any books, documents or papers which are in evidence or liable to inspection in any civil or criminal proceeding contain any entry in which any informer is named or described or which might lead to his or her discovery, the court before which the proceeding is heard, shall cause all such passages to be concealed from view or to be obliterated so far as is necessary to protect the informer from discovery, but no further.

(3) If on a trial for any offence under this Act, the court, after full inquiry into the case, is of opinion that the informer willfully made in his or her complaint a material statement which he or she knew or believed to be false or did not believe be true, or if in any other proceeding the court is of the opinion that justice cannot be fully done between the parties to the proceeding without the discovery of the informer, the court may require the production of the original complaint, if in writing, and permit inquiry and require full disclosure concerning the informer.

(4) Subsection (1) shall not have effect where a prosecution is instituted against any person for an offence under section 24.

24. Penalty for giving false information.

(1) Any person who gives any information which he or she knows or believes to be false, intending by giving it to cause, or knowing it to be likely that he or she will by giving it cause, an investigation or prosecution to be commenced under this Act, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years or to a fine not exceeding fifty currency points or to both.

(2) Where a court convicts any person of an offence under this section, the court shall order the offender to pay such sum by way of compensation to the person in respect of whom an investigation or prosecution under this Act was commenced as in the opinion of the court is just, having regard to all the circumstances, and any such order shall be deemed to be a decree and may be executed in the manner provided by the Civil Procedure Act.

(3) Nothing in this section shall prevent proceedings to recover damages by any person being instituted in a civil court, but at the time of awarding damages in any subsequent civil suit relating to the same matter, the court shall take into consideration any sum or recovered as compensation awarded under subsection(2).

25. Disqualification.

Every person who is convicted of any offence under section 2,3,4 or 5 shall become disqualified for ten years from the date of his or her conviction from holding any office in or under a public body.

26. Protection of persons acting in pursuance of the Act.

No act, matter or thing done or done or omitted by any person authorised by this Act to perform any duty or exercise any function shall, if the act, matter or thing was done or omitted in good faith, render the person personally liable to any action, liability, claim or demand.

27. Invalidity of appointment as bar to prosecution.

A person shall not be exempt from prosecution under this Act by reason of the invalidity of his or her appointment, nomination or election to his or her office.

28. Prosecution of offences.

A prosecution under this Act shall not be instituted except by or with the consent of the Director of Public Prosecutions; but a person charged with such an offence may be arrested, or a warrant for his or her arrest may be issued and executed, and the person may be remanded in custody or an bails, notwithstanding that the consent of the Director of Public Prosecutions to the institution of a prosecution for the offence has not been obtained, but no further or other proceedings shall be taken until that consent has been obtained.

29. Appointment of special investigators.

(1) whenever the director of public prosecutions considers it desirable for purposes of any investigation under this act, he or she may recommend the appointment of any person who is, in his or her opinion, possessed of any necessary special skill or experience, to be a special investigator.

(2) a special investigator shall be appointed in accordance with any written law relating to the appointment of persons to the public service.

(3) a certificate signed by the director of public prosecutions shall be issued to a special investigator and shall be evidence of his or her appointment for the purposes of this act.

30. exercise of powers, etc. of director of public prosecutions by his or her deputy.

Any power, duty or function conferred or imposed by this act on the director of public prosecutions may be exercised or performed by the deputy director of public prosecutions.

31.Jurisdiction to try offences.

Jurisdiction to try an offence under this act shall only be exercised by −

the high court; or a magistrate’s court presided over by a chief magistrate.

32.minister’s power to amend schedule.

The minister responsible for justice may, by statutory instrument, with the approval of the cabinet, amend the schedule to this act.

(Entry into force on: 5 March, 2002)

An Act to make provisions for the Inspectorate of Government in line with Chapter Thirteen of the Constitution and in particular to give effect to the provisions of that Chapter as required by articles 225, 226 and 232 of the Constitution, to repeal the Inspectorate of Government Statute, 1988 and to provide for other related matters.

1. This Act may be cited as the Inspectorate of Government Act,2002.

2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires –

“Appointments board” means the Appointments Board established under Section 7 of this Act;

“Authority” means an Authority by whatever name called, established by the Constitution or any other law;

“Board” means the Appointments Board;

“Corruption” means the abuse of public office for private gain and includes but is not limited to embezzlement, bribery, nepotism, influence peddling, theft of public funds or assets, fraud, forgery, causing financial or property loss and false accounting in public affairs;

“Currency point” has the value given to it in the First Schedule to this Act;

“Deputy Inspector-General” means a Deputy Inspector-General of Government referred to in section 3 of this Act;

Short title

Interpretation

“Inspector-General” means the Inspector-General of Government appointed under Section 3 of this Act and includes a Deputy Inspector-General;

“Minister” means the Minister to whom the functions of a

Part II – The inspectorate of government

3 (1) There shall be an Inspectorate of Government.

(2) The Inspectorate shall consist of-

(a) the Inspector-General of Government; and

(b) two Deputy Inspectors-General.

(3) At least one of the persons referred to in subsection (2) of this section shall be a person qualified to be appointed a Judge of the High Court.

(4) A person shall not be eligible for appointment as Inspector-General or Deputy Inspector-General unless that person-

(a) is a citizen of Uganda;

(b) is a person of high moral character and proven integrity; and

(c) possesses considerable experience and demonstrated competence and is of high calibre in the conduct of public affairs.

(5) A person shall resign his or her office on appointment as an Inspector-General or a Deputy Inspector-General if that person is-

(a) a member of Parliament;

(b) a member of a Local Government Council; or

(c) a member of the executive of a political party or organisation

The Inspectorate

“Inspectorate” means the Inspectorate of Government established under Article 223 of the Constitution.

4. (1) The Inspector-General and a Deputy Inspector-General shall be appointed by the President with the approval of Parliament and shall not, while holding office, hold any other office of emolument in the public office.

Appointment of members of Inspectorate

subject to the Constitution be a public office.

(3) The Inspector-General and a Deputy Inspector-General shall hold office for a term of four years but shall be eligible for re-appointment only once.

(4) The remuneration and other conditions of service of members of the Inspectorate shall be determined by Parliament and the salaries and allowances of members of the Inspectorate shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund.

5. (1) The Inspector-General or a Deputy Inspector-General may be removed from office by the President on the recommendation of a special tribunal constituted by Parliament only for-

(a) inability to perform the functions of his or her office arising from infirmity of body or mind; or

(b) misconduct, misbehaviour or conduct unbecoming of the holder of the office; or

(c) incompetence

(2) The special tribunal referred to under sub-section (1) shall consist of a Justice of the Supreme Court, who shall be the Chairperson and two other persons, all of whom shall be

appointed by Parliament.

(3)On receiving complaints about the Inspector-General or the Deputy Inspector-General, the President shall refer the matter to Parliament to constitute the special tribunal to investigate the matter.

(4) The President shall remove the Inspector-General or Deputy Inspector-General if the special tribunal recommends that the Inspector-General or Deputy Inspector-General ought to be removed from office on any of the grounds under subsection (1).

Removal of Inspector-General and Deputy Inspector-General

(2) For the avoidance of doubt, the Inspectorate shall,

(6) A suspension under sub-section (5) shall cease to have effect if the special tribunal advises the President that the officer should not be removed from office.

6. (1) A person appointed Inspector-General or Deputy Inspector-General shall, before assuming the duties of his or her office, take and subscribe the oath specified in Part A of the Second Schedule to this Act.

(2) The oath shall be administered by the President.

7. (1) There is established an Appointments Board consisting of the following-

(a) the Inspector-General who shall be the Chairperson of the Board;

(b) every Deputy Inspector-General;

(c) the Secretary;

(d) the Chairperson of the Public Service Commission or a member of that Commission authorised by the Chairperson in writing;

(e) the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry responsible for the public service; and

(f) two other members appointed by the President one of whom shall be a woman.

(2) The functions of the Appointments Board shall include-

(a) the establishment of posts within the Inspectorate;

(b) the appointment in accordance with section 16 of this Act;

(c) the making of regulations for the discipline of officers and other employees of the Inspectorate; and

(d) the performance of any other functions that Parliament may by resolution assign to the Board.

(3) The staff shall be appointed on the basis of their integrity and competence.

Oath of members of Inspectorate Appointments Board

(5) If the question of removing the Inspector-General or Deputy Inspector General is referred to the special tribunal, the President shall suspend the Inspector-General or Deputy Inspector-General from performing the functions of his or her office pending the investigations.

Part III – Functions of inspectorate

8. (1) Pursuant to the provisions of the Constitution and to this Act, the functions of the Inspectorate are-

(a) to promote and foster strict adherence to the rule of law and principles of natural justice in administration;

(b) to eliminate and foster the elimination of corruption, abuse of authority and of public office;

(c) to promote fair, efficient and good governance in public offices;

(d) to enforce the Leadership Code of Conduct;

(e) to investigate any act, omission, advice, decision or recommendation by a public officer or any other authority to which this section applies, taken, made, given or done in exercise for administrative functions;

(f) to stimulate public awareness bout the values of constitutionalism in general and the activities of its office, in particular, through any media and other means it considers appropriate;

(g) to inquire into the methods by which law enforcing agents and the state security agencies execute their functions, and the extent to which the practices and procedures

employed in the execution of such functions uphold, encourage or interfere with the rules .of law in Uganda;

(h) to investigate the conduct of any public officer which may be connected with or conducive to-

(i) the abuse of his or her office or authority;

(ii) the neglect of his or her official duties;

(iii) economic malpractices by the officer;

Functions of Inspectorate

(i) to take necessary measures for the detection and prevention of corruption in public offices and in particular-

(i) to examine the practices and procedures of those offices in order to facilitate the discovery of corrupt practices and to secure the revision of methods of work or procedure which, in the opinion of the Inspectorate may be conducive to corrupt practices;

(ii) to advise those offices on ways and means of preventing corrupt practices and on methods of work or procedure conducive to the effective performance of their duties and which, in the opinion of the Inspector-General, would reduce the incidence of corruption;

(iii) to disseminate information on the evil and dangerous effects of corruption on society;

(iv) to enlist and foster public complaints of alleged or suspected corrupt practices and injustices and make recommendations for appropriate action on them ; and

(j) to perform any other functions that Parliament may prescribe.

(2) The Inspectorate may investigate any matter referred to in sub-section (1) of this section, on its own initiative or upon complaint made to it by any individual or body of persons whether corporate or not and whether or not that individual or body has suffered any injustice by reason of that matter.

(3) The Inspectorate may, in the performance of its duties under this section, investigate into the actions of any person that may have been done while that person was serving in a public office, notwithstanding that at the time of the investigation, that person has ceased to serve in that office.

(4) The Inspectorate may in the performance of its functions under this Act delegate any of its functions to other authorities or persons at district or lower levels including any local government.

9. The jurisdiction of the Inspectorate shall cover officers and leaders serving in the following offices.

Jurisdiction of Inspectorate

(a) a government department; undertaking or service;

(b) a statutory corporation or authority;

(c) the Cabinet;

(d) Parliament;

(e) a Court of law;

(f) the Uganda Police Force;

(g) the Uganda Prison Force;

(h) a government aided school, college or other institution of learning that accesses public funds;

(i) the Uganda Peoples’ Defense Forces;

(j) the Local Defense Forces;

(k) a local government council or local government unit or a committee of such council or unit;

(l) a council, boards, society or committee established by law for the control and regulation of any profession;

(m) a public commission, association or similar body whether corporate or not, established by or under any law;

(n) national security organisations including Internal Security Organisation ISO;

(o) any other, office or body that administers public funds on behalf of the public.

10. The Inspectorate shall be independent i the performance of its functions and shall not be subject to the direction or control of any person or authority and shall only be responsible to Parliament

11. The Inspectorate may establish branches at district and other administrative levels as it considers fit for the better performance of its functions.

12. For the purposes of performing its functions under this Act, the Inspectorate shall have the following powers-

(a) to authorise in writing any officer under its charges to conduct an inquiry or investigation into an allegation of corruption, abuse of office and neglect of duty, and any

other aspect that the Inspectorate is empowered to investigate into;

(b) to require a public officer or any other person to answer questions concerning his or her duties or those of another person;

(c) to require any person in charge of a public office to produce or furnish within a specified time, any document or certified true copy of such document which is in his or her possession or under his or her charge; and

(d) to do any other thing necessary for the performance of the functions of the inspectorate under this Act.

13. (1) Subject to the provisions of any law, the Inspectorate shall have power to enter and inspect the premises or property of any department of Government, person or of any authority; to call for, examine and where necessary, retain any document or item in connection with the case being investigated, found on the premises; and may, in those premises, carry out any investigation for the purpose of its functions.

(2) Without prejudice to the powers of the Inspectorate specified in section 12 of this Act, the Inspector-General, the Deputy Inspector-General or any other officer or person authorised by the Inspector-General or Deputy Inspector-General for the purpose, shall,

in the performance of their functions under this Act-

Independence of Inspectorate Branches of Inspectorate General powers of Inspectorate Powers of access and search

(a) search any person and retain any document or item in connection with the matter being investigated found with or on him or her;

(b) have access to all books, returns, reports and other documents relating to the work in any public office;

(c) at any time have access to and be able to search the premises of any public office, or of any vessel, aircraft or other vehicles, if there is reason to suspect that property corruptly or otherwise unlawfully acquired has been placed, deposited or concealed in it.

(3) An officer or person conducting a search under subsection (1) of this section shall only do so on the express instruction of the Inspector-General or a Deputy Inspector- General who shall issue a search warrant to that effect, in Form 1 specified in the Third Schedule to this Act.

(4) For the purpose of exercising his or her powers of access and search under subsection (1) of this section, the Inspector-General, the Deputy Inspector-General or any other officer or person authorised for the purpose may use such reasonable force as may be necessary in the circumstances and may be accompanied or assisted by such other law enforcement officers as he or she considers necessary to assist him or her to enter into or upon the premises, vessel, aircraft or vehicle, as the case may be.

(5) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, where the President certifies that the entry upon or inspection of any premises, vessel, aircraft or vehicle-

(a) might prejudice the security, defence or international relations of Uganda or the investigation or detection of any offence; or

(b) might involve the disclosure of the deliberations of the Cabinet or committee of the Cabinet relating to matters of a secret or confidential nature and would be injurious to the public interest, the Inspectorate shall not exercise its powers of access and search with respect to the premises, vessel, aircraft or vehicle.

14. (1) The Inspector-General or a Deputy Inspector-General may, by order signed by him or her authorise an officer of the Inspectorate or any other competent person under the control of the Inspectorate to investigate any bank account, purchase account, share account, expense account or any other account, or any safe or deposit box in a bank, or any transaction for the purposes of this Act.

(2) An order made under subsection (1) of this section shall be sufficient authority for the disclosure or production by any person of information, accounts, documents or articles as may be required by the officer and the collection and taking of any oral and documentary evidence by the authorised officer or person.

(3) An order made under this section may direct the suspension of all operations in respect of the account against the holder of the account or any other person or the stopping of any transaction subject to such conditions as the Inspector-General or Deputy Inspector-General may specify.

(4) Any person who wilfully and unlawfully refuses to comply with an order issued under this section, commits an offence and is liable on conviction, to a fine not exceeding one hundred fifty currency points or imprisonment not exceeding three years or both.

(5) The Inspectorate shall have power to investigate, cause investigation, arrest, cause arrest, prosecute or cause prosecution in respect of cases involving corruption, abuse of authority or of public office.

(6) The Inspector-General may, during the course of his or her duties or as a consequence of his or her findings, make such orders and give such directions as are necessary and appropriate in the circumstances.

(7) The Inspectorate shall, when enforcing the Leadership Code of Conduct, have all the powers conferred on it by this Act in addition to any other powers conferred by law.

(8) Notwithstanding any law, the Inspectorate shall not require the consent or approval of any person or authority to prosecute, or discontinue proceedings instituted by the Inspectorate.

(9) In all cases prosecuted by the Inspector-General of Government, he or she shall exercise the same powers of appeal as exercised by the Director of Public Prosecutions.

Special powers of Inspectorate

Part IV – Secretary and other staff of inspectorate

15. (1) The Inspectorate shall have a Secretary who shall be appointed by the President acting on the advise fo the Public Service Commission and shall hold office upon such terms and conditions as are applicable to a Permanent Secretary.

(2) The Secretary shall be a person qualified to be appointed to the office of Permanent Secretary.

(3) The Secretary shall, subject to subsection (4) of section 31 of this Act and to the general control of the Inspectorate-

(a) be responsible for giving effect to the policy decisions of the Inspectorate and the day to day administration and management of the affairs of the Inspectorate and the control of the other staff of the Inspectorate.

(b) be responsible for arranging the business for and the recording and keeping of the minutes of all decisions and proceedings of the Inspectorate at its meetings; and

(c) perform any other function assigned to him or her by the Inspector General.

16. (1) The Inspectorate shall have such other officers and employees as may be necessary for the efficient and effective performance of its functions under this Act.

(2) All officers and employees of the Inspectorate other than the Secretary shall be appointed by the Board upon such terms and conditions as the Board may determine.

(3) The Inspectorate may in the performance of its functions under this Act and on such terms and conditions as the Inspectorate may determine, engage the services of or work in consultation with professional or technical experts or consultants whether in the public service or not, to enhance the performance of the Inspectorate.

Secretary to Inspectorate Other staff

17. (1) The Secretary and any other officer or employee of the Inspectorate shall, before assuming the duties of his or her office, take and subscribe the oath set out in Part B of the Second Schedule of this Act.

Part V – Procedure for investigations

18. (1) The Inspectorate may, by statutory instrument signed by the Inspector-General prescribe rules of procedure generally for the conduct of investigations and for any matter that is necessary for the efficient performance of the functions of the Inspectorate under this Act.

(2) In particular but without prejudice to the general effect of subsection (1), rules made under this section may prescribe fees in respect of anything to be done under this Act and also forms to be used in connection with the functions of the Inspectorate under this Act or under Chapter Thirteen of the Constitution.

19. (1) The Inspectorate shall not have power to question or review any of the following matters-

(a) the decision of any court of law or of any judicial officer in the exercise of his or her judicial functions;

(b) the decision of any tribunal established by law in the exercise of its functions;

(c) any civil matter which is before court at the commencement of the Inspectorate’s investigations;

(d) any matter relating to the exercise of the prerogative of mercy; or

(e) any matter the review or investigation of which has been certified by the President as likely to-

(i) be prejudicial to the security, defence or international relations of Uganda; or

(ii) involve the disclosure of proceedings and deliberations of the Cabinet or a Committee of Cabinet relating to matters of a secret or confidential nature and would be injurious to the public interest.

Secretary and other staff Rules of procedure Limitation on investigations by Inspectorate

(2) Where the Inspectorate is satisfied that-

(a) the complainant has at any material time had the right or opportunity of obtaining relief or redress by means of-

(i) an application or representation to any executive authority; or

(ii) an application, appeal, reference or review to or before a tribunal established by law; or

(iii) proceedings in a court of law;

(b) the complaint is trivial, frivolous, vexatious or not made in good faith; or

(c) the investigation would be unnecessary, improper or futile, the Inspectorate may decline to conduct an investigation and accordingly inform the complainant in writing, but the Inspectorate shall not be bound to give any reasons for the decision.

20. (1) The procedure for conducting an investigation shall be such as the Inspectorate considers appropriate in the circumstances of each case, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, the Inspectorate may obtain information from such person and in such manner, and make such inquiries as it considers necessary.

(2) An official or other agent of the Inspectorate shall not communicate or divulge to any person any information which has come to his or her knowledge in the course or her duties, otherwise than in the performance of his or her duties under this Act.

(3) No person who is not an official or other agent of the Inspectorate shall communicate or divulge to any person any information referred to in subsection (2) of this section except with the approval of the Inspectorate or when ordered by a court or when otherwise required or authorised by law.

(4) A person who contravenes subsection (2) or (3) of this section commits an offence and is liable on conviction, to a fine not exceeding fifty currency points or imprisonment not exceeding twelve months or both.

Conduct of investigations

21. Proceedings, findings, recommendations, investigations or inquiries by the Office of the Inspector-General shall not be held null and void by reason only of informality or irregularity in the procedure and shall not be liable to be challenged, reviewed, quashed or called in question in any court of law.

22.(1) No proceedings, whether civil or criminal, shall lie against the Inspector-General, Deputy Inspector-General, an officer or any other person employed or authorised to execute the orders or warrants of the Inspectorate for anything done in good faith and in the course of the performance of his or her duties under this Act.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Act, no officer or person serving in the Inspectorate shall be compelled to give evidence before any court or tribunal in respect of anything coming to his or her knowledge by virtue of his or her service.

23. Subject to any other law which enjoins the disclosure of classified information, anything said, information supplied, document, paper or thing produced in the course of an inquiry under this Act shall be privileged in the same manner as if the inquiry were a proceeding in a court of law, and a report of the Inspectorate shall be privileged in the same manner as if it were a record and judgment of a proceeding in court.

Part VI – Investigations

24. (1) A complaint or allegation under this Act may be made by an individual or by anybody of persons whether corporate or not, and shall be strictly confidential and addressed to the Inspector-General.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of any written law, where a prisoner, or an employee in a public office, makes an allegation or complaint to the Inspectorate under this Act, the allegation or complaint shall not be made through, subject to the scrutiny of the prison officials or the immediate supervisor or employer as the case may be.

(3) A complaint or allegation made under this Act shall be-

(a) made by the complainant or by his or her legal representative

Effect of findings and recommendations of Inspectorate Immunity of officers Privilege of Information Provisions relating to complaints

(4) No complaint or allegation shall be received by the Inspectorate unless it is made within a period of two years from the date on which the facts giving rise to the complaint or allegation arose; except that in exceptional circumstances and in his or her discretion,

the Inspector-General or Deputy Inspector-General may direct that a complaint or allegation lodged after the specified period shall be received.

(5) Subsections (3) and (4) of this section shall not apply to a complaint or allegation relating to a criminal offence.

25. (1) Except as provided in subsections (2) and (3) of this section, no person shall, as of right, be entitled to be heard before the Inspectorate.

(2) Where the Inspectorate conducts an investigation as a result of a complaint or allegation under this Act, the Inspectorate shall give the head of the public office concerned and any other person who is the subject of the complaint or allegation, an

opportunity to reply to the complaint or allegation made against him or her.

(3) No matter that is adverse to any person, or public office shall be included in a report of the Inspectorate unless the person or head of that office has been given a prior hearing.

26. (1) Subject to this Act, the Inspectorate may-

(a) summon any person who in the opinion of the Inspectorate is able to give information relating to any matter relevant to the inquiry being conducted by it, to appear before the Inspectorate and to furnish such information and produce any documents, papers or things that may be in the possession or under the control of that person; and

(b) by order in writing, summon that person to attend before the Inspectorate at a specified time and place and to be examined on oath.

Right to be heard Procuring information and attendance of witnesses

(b) in writing and addressed to the Inspector-General except where the complainant cannot write, in which case the Inspectorate shall cause the oral complaint to be translated into a written one; and

(c) signed or thumb printed by the complainant.

27. (1) Where a person on whom a summon under section 26 of this Act has been duly served does not attend at the specified time and place, and the Inspectorate is satisfied that-

(a) the summon was properly and duly served; and

(b) the person to whom the summon was directed wilfully and without lawful justification avoided service; the Inspectorate may issue a warrant of arrest in Form 6 specified in the

Third Schedule to this Act, to be executed by an officer of the Inspectorate or a police officer, to apprehend that person and bring him or her before the Inspectorate at a specified time and place.

(2) A person apprehended under subsection (1) shall, within twenty-four hours of his or her arrest or soon thereafter as is practicable, be brought before the Inspectorate.

28. The Inspectorate may pay to any person summoned before it under this Act, such allowances or sums in respect of expenses properly incurred by that person as the Inspectorate may consider appropriate.

Part VII – Reports

29. (1) The Inspectorate shall submit to Parliament at least once in every six months, a report on the performance of its functions, making such recommendations as it considers necessary and containing such information as Parliament may require.

Failure of witnesses to attend Witness allowance

(2) The oath referred to in subsection (1) shall be in Form 4 specified in the Third Schedule to this Act.

(3) Where a person is to be examined on oath under this section, any officer duly authorised by the Inspectorate may administer that oath.

(5) A summon issued under this section shall be served on the person to whom it is directed, by an officer from the Inspectorate or by a police officer, in the manner prescribed for the service of a witness summons in civil proceedings before a court of laws.

Reports of Inspectorate

(2) A copy of the report referred to in subsection (1) of this section shall be forwarded by the Inspectorate to the President; and where any matter contained in the report relates to the administration of any local authority, an extract of the portion of the report on the matter shall be forwarded to that local authority.

(3) The Speaker shall lay before Parliament any report submitted under subsection (1) of this section within thirty days after it has been submitted, if Parliament is then in session, or if Parliament is not in session, within thirty days after the commencement of its next following sessions.

30. (1) Upon receipt of a report under section 29 of this Act, Parliament may take or cause to be taken such action it as it may consider appropriate.

(2) Upon receipt of a copy of a report of the Inspectorate under section 29 the President may take or cause to be taken against the public officer or other person in respect of whom the report is mad such action as may be taken under or in accordance with any written law.

Part VIII – General

31. (1) Parliament shall ensure that adequate resources and facilities are provided to the Inspectorate to enable it to perform its functions effectively.

(2) Subject to clause (8) of article 223 of the Constitution, the Inspectorate shall have an independent budget appropriated by Parliament, and controlled by the Inspectorate.

(3) The budget of the Inspectorate shall cover the salaries and allowances of the Secretary and other staff of the Inspectorate, the expenses of running the headquarters and branches of the Inspectorate and such other expenses of or connected with the operations of the

Inspectorate as Parliament may approve.

(4) The budget shall be prepared annually by the Secretary and upon approval by the Inspectorate, it shall be submitted to Parliament for its approval under article 229 of the Constitution.

Action on report Resources of Inspectorate

(5) Upon approval of the budget by Parliament, the moneys approved in the budget shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund.

(6) The funds of the Inspectorate may, with the approval of the Minister responsible for finance, include grants and donations to enable the Inspectorate to discharge its functions effectively.

(7) Subject to article 229 of the Constitution, all funds provided to the Inspectorate under this Act shall be administered and controlled by the Secretary who shall be the accounting officer in accordance with the Public Finance act.

32. Subject to this Act, where any instrument or document is required or authorised to be issued by the Inspectorate or any act is required or authorised to be done by the Inspectorate in the performance of its functions under this Act, the instrument or

document or act may be signed, executed or done by the Inspector-General or a Deputy Inspector-General or by any person authorised in writing by the Inspector-General or by a Deputy Inspector-General.

33. The Inspectorate shall have a seal which shall be in such form as the Inspectorate may determine and shall, subject to the provisions of any law, be applied in such circumstances as the Inspectorate may determine.

34. (1) A person who provides information to the Inspectorate shall be protected and his or her identify shall not be disclosed and may be rewarded for his or her information and paid an amount of five percent of the money recovered consequent upon his or her

An Act to provide for a minimum standard of behaviour and conduct for leaders; to require leaders to declare their incomes, assets and liabilities; to put in place an effective enforcement mechanism and to provide for other related matters.

1. This Act may be cited as the Leadership Code Act, 2002.

2. (1) In this Code unless the context otherwise requires-

“agent” in relation to the business or affairs of a leader, means a person whose decisions or acts are such that they are, in absence made or done by the leader himself or herself; or the person who manages and controls the business or affairs of which the leader is the principal beneficiary;

Short title

Interpretation

“asset” means a thing owned by a person such as property, which has value and can be sold or used to pay a debt;

“authorised person” means a person or body authorised by law to discipline the leader in relation to whom the expression is used;

“benefit” includes any gift, payment, subscription, advance, loan, commission, forbearing, gratuity or favour whether monetary or in kind, rendering services, or deposit of money or anything of value including food, lodging, transportation or entertainment or reimbursement;

“child” means a person under eighteen years of age in relation to whom a leader is a parent or acts as a parent;

“conflict of interest” refers to a situation where a leader has got to make a decision between his or her personal interest and public interest;

“currency point” means the value of a currency point specified in the First Schedule;

“declaration” means a declaration of income, assets and liabilities required to be submitted by every leader under section 4 of this Code;

“dependant” means a person whose means of support is partially or wholly from a leader;

“foreign” when used in relation to anybody of persons or organisation, means any such body or organisation the controlling interest of which is held by persons who are not citizens of Uganda or are not Government or public bodies and also includes a body of persons or organisation not incorporated or registered in Uganda although the controlling authority in it is held by persons who are citizens of Uganda;

“Government” includes a local government;

“Inspector-General” means the Inspectorate of Government, established by article 223 of the Constitution;

“leader” means a person holding or acting in any of the offices specified in the Second Schedule;

” liability” means a debt or financial obligation;

“Minister” means the minister responsible for justice;

“public body” means Parliament, a statutory corporation, commission, board, council, authority, or other body in which Government has an interest, a co-operative union registered under the Co-operative Societies Act, 1970, anybody in which a public body has an interest and such other body as the Minister may, by regulations made undersection 40 of this Code prescribe;

“spouse” means a wife or husband.

(2) The provisions of this Code shall constitute the Leadership Code of Conduct under chapter Fourteen of the Constitution.

Part II – Functions of inspectorate and declaration of income, assets and liabilities.

3 (1) The Inspectorate shall enforce this Code.

(2) In enforcing this Code, the Inspectorate shall carry out the following functions-

(a) to receive and examine declarations lodged with it under this Code;

(b) to examine whether or not a leader has corrupt influence or has corruptly entered into a contract with a government or public body or foreign business organisation contrary to this Code;

(c) to inquire or cause an inquiry to be conducted on its own initiative or on a complaint made by any person, into any alleged breach of this code by any leader;

(d) to investigate and report on any allegations of high handed, outrageous, infamous or disgraceful conduct or any other behaviour or conduct on the part of a leader in accordance with the definition of the words high-handed; outrageous, disgraceful conduct and infamous to be provided for by the regulations to be made by the Minister;

(e) to recommend awards, disbursements and such payments or rewards as it may consider appropriate in connection with any assistance rendered in the enforcement of this Code; and

(f) to carry out any other functions prescribed by or under this Code.

(3) The Inspectorate may, for the purpose of ensuring the effective implementation of its functions under this Code, delegate any of its functions to any person or authority subject to such conditions and limitations as the Inspector-General may impose.

Enforcement and functions of Inspectorate

4. (1) A leader shall-

(a) within three months after the commencement of this Code; and

(b) thereafter every two years, during the month of March,

Declaration of income, assets and liabilities

5. (1) The Inspector-General may, by notice in writing, require a leader to account for any matter in connection with a declaration submitted by him or her including-

(a) the omission of anything which in the opinion of the Inspector-General, should have been included in the declaration;

submit to the Inspector-General a written declaration of the leader’s income, assets and liabilities, the names, income, assets and liabilities of his or her spouse, child and dependant in the prescribed form, without prejudice to the rights of the leader’s spouse, child and dependant to independently own property.

(2) A person shall –

(a) within three months after becoming a leader; and

(b) thereafter every two years, during the month of December; submit to the Inspector-General a written declaration of the leader’s income, assets and liabilities, the names, income, assets and liabilities of his or her spouse, child, and dependant in the prescribed form, without prejudice to the rights of the leader’s spouse, child and dependant to independently own property.

(3) A leader shall before the expiration of his or her term of office declare his or her income, assets and liabilities under this Code if his or her term of office expires six months after his or her last declaration.

(4) A leader shall in a declaration under subsection (1) and (2) of this section, state how he or she or his or her spouse, child or dependant acquired or incurred, as the case may be, the income, assets and liabilities.

(5) A leader shall ensure that all the information contained in the declaration submitted to the Inspector- General is true and correct to the best of his or her knowledge.

(6) A leader who without justifiable cause submits a declaration to the Inspector-General thirty days after the period prescribed under subsection (1) and (2) of this section commits a breach of this Code.

(7) Where a declaration is made by a leader in respect of himself or herself or any person under this section, where the leader or that person is found to be in possession of assets and income disproportionate to the known source of income which he or she cannot satisfactorily account for, the leader shall be taken to have breached this Code.

(8) A leader who fails without reasonable cause to submit a declaration under this section commits a breach of this Code.

Power of the Inspector- General to require clarification etc

(b) any discrepancies appearing in the declaration, or occuring between the declaration and any other statement or information available to the Inspector-General and the leader shall comply with that requirement.

(2) A leader who, without reasonable cause, fails to comply with the Inspector-General’s request for clarification within thirty days after receipt of notice, commits a breach of this code and is liable to-

(a) a warning or caution; or

(b) dismissal; or

(c) vacation of office;

6. A leader who knowingly or recklessly submits a declaration or gives an account of any matter which is false, misleading or insufficient in any material particular, commits a breach of this Code.

7. The contents of a declaration under this Code shall be treated as public information and shall be accessible to members of the public upon application to the Inspector-General in the form prescribed under this Code.

Failure to submit correct information Declaration to be public

Part III – Prohibited conduct

8. (1) A leader shall not put himself or herself in a position in which his or her personal interest conflicts with his or her duties and responsibilities.

(2) Conflict of interest shall be taken to arise where-

(a) a leader deals with a matter in which he or she has personal interest and where he or she is in a position to influence the matter, directly or indirectly, in the course of his or her official duties;

(b) the position the leader holds and the services he or she gives to a person or private body is or are in conflict with his or her official duties.

(3) A leader who contravenes this section commits a breach of this Code.

9. (1) A leader shall not participate in the deliberations of a public body or board or council or commission or committee, of which he or she is a member at any meeting at which any matter in which he or she has a personal interest is to be discussed.

(2) A leader attending a meeting under subsection (1) of this section shall disclose the nature and extent of his or her personal interest.

Conflict of interest Disclosure of interest

(3) A leader who fails to comply with the provisions of this section breaches this Code and shall-

(a) cease to be a member of that public body, board, council, commission, or committee; and

(b) where any loss is caused, make good the loss.

(4) Before a leader deals with a matter in the course of his or her duties in which he or she has a personal interest, the leader shall inform the person or public body or institution concerned, of the nature and extent of his or her interest.

(5) “Personal interest” in this section in relation to leader, includes the personal interest of a spouse, child, dependant, agent, or business associate of which the leader has knowledge or would have had knowledge if he or she had exercised due diligence having regard to all the circumstances.

10. (1) A gift or donation to a leader on any public or ceremonial occasion, or commission to a leader on any transaction shall be treated as a gift or donation or commission to the Government or institution represented by the leader and shall be declared to the Inspector-General; but the government or institution shall keep an inventory of any such gifts.

(2) A leader may accept a personal gift or donation from a relative or personal friend to such an extent and on such occasion as is recognised by custom.

Gifts or benefits in kind

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, a leader may accept a gift if the gift is in the nature of a souvenir or ornament and does not exceed five currency points in value

(4) Where a leader receives any gifts or other benefits of a value of ten currency points or above from anyone source in a twelve consecutive months period, the leader shall disclose that gift, or benefit to the Inspector-General.

(5) Where a leader is in doubt as to the need for a declaration or the appropriateness of accepting an offer of a gift, hospitality or other benefit, that leader shall consult the Inspector-General for advice.

(6) A leader who fails to comply with the provisions of this section commits a breach of this Code.

11. A leader who directly or indirectly accepts any property or gift which influences or is likely to influence the leader to do a favour to any person commits a breach of this Code.

12. (1) A leader, a leader’s spouse, agent, private company or public company or business enterprise in which the leader, leader’s spouse or agent has a controlling interest shall not seek, accept or hold any contract with-

Prohibited conduct Prohibited contracts

(a) any government or public body which the leader controls or directly participates in the decision making of its affairs; or

(b) any foreign business organisation where the contract is likely to be in conflict with the public interest.

(2) A leader who contravenes subsection (1) breaches this Code and is liable to-

(a) vacate office; or

(b) be dismissed from the office.

13. (1) A leader shall protect and preserve public property under his or her personal use and shall not use such property or allow its use for any other purpose other than authorised purposes.

(2) In this section “public property” includes any form of real or personal property in which the Government or public body has ownership; a plant, equipment, leasehold, or other property interest as well as any right or other intangible interest that is purchased with public funds, including the services of contractor personnel, office supplies, telephones and other telecommunications equipment and services, mails, automated data, public body records, and vehicles.

Abuse of public property

(3) A leader who knowingly misuses or allows public property entrusted to his or her care to be misused, abused or left unprotected shall make good the loss occasioned to the property; and the value of the property or damage to the property shall constitute a debt from the leader to the Government or public body concerned.

(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (3) of this section, a leader who knowingly misuses or allows public property entrusted to his or her care to be misused or abused or left unprotected may, in addition to the sanctions under that subsection be-

(a) warned or cautioned;

(b) demoted; or

(c) dismissed from office.

14. (1) Without derogating from any other written law, a leader shall not directly or indirectly use or allow any person under his or her control to use for furthering any private interest, whether financial or otherwise, any information obtained through or in connection with the office of the leader and not yet made available to the public.

(2) Subsection (1) of this section does not apply to the use of the information referred to in that subsection for the purpose of educational, research, literary, scientific or other similar purpose not prohibited by law.

Misuse of official information

(3) A leader who contravenes the provisions of this section commits a breach of this Code and is liable to-

(a) be warned or cautioned;

(b) demotion; or

(c) dismissal; or

(d) vacate office.

15. (1) Without derogating from any other written law, a leader shall not-

(a) improperly use his or her official position to obtain any property including land, buildings and business interests for himself or herself or his or her spouse, child, relation, friend or agent;

(b) act to the detriment of Government by refusing or neglecting to settle his or her lawful financial obligations to Government or any public body;

(c) be an agent of or allow himself or herself to be used to further the interest of any foreign government, organisation or individual in a manner detrimental to the interests of Uganda;

General prohibited conduct

(e) do or direct to be done in abuse of his or her office any act prejudicial to the rights of any person or obtain an unfair advantage over his or her subordinate including abuse of the rights of a member of the opposite sex, through, among other acts, the use of coercion, threat or harassment.

(2) A leader referred to in the Third Schedule to this Act shall not, except with prior written approval of the Inspector General-

(a) hold office of director or any other office in a foreign business organisation, firm, company or property in any such foreign organisation which is owned and or managed by foreign citizens;

(b) operate a business as a commission agent; or

(c) accept or be involved in the acceptance of any gift, benefit or advantage from a company or in any such company or firm which is owned and or managed by foreign citizens.

(3) A leader whom the Inspector General denies approval under subsection (2) may appeal against such decision to the High Court.

(4) “Commission agent” under this section means a person employed to sell goods or services delivered to him or her for his or her principal for a commission.

(5) A leader shall not hold any office of profit or emolument likely to compromise his or her office.

(6) Any leader who fails without any reasonable cause to comply with the provisions of this section commits a breach of this Code.

(7) Any leader who directs or concurs in the use public funds contrary to existing instructions commits a breach of this Code and shall be required to make good the loss even if he or she has ceased to hold that office.

Part IV – Post employment.

16. (1) A leader shall not allow himself or herself to be influenced in the pursuit of his or her official duties and responsibilities by plans or expectations for or offers of future employment.

(2) A leader shall disclose in writing to the Inspector General all offers of future employment that could place the leader in a position of conflict of interest.

Future employment

(3) A leader who accepts an offer of future employment shall immediately disclose in writing to the Inspector General as well as the authorised person the acceptance of the offer, and in such even, where it is determined by the Inspector General that the leader is engaged in significant official dealings with the future employer, the leader shall be

assigned other duties and responsibilities immediately.

(4) The period spent in public office following an assignment under subsection (3) of this section shall be counted towards the limitation period on employment imposed in section 18 of this Code.

(5) A leader who contravenes the provisions of this section commits a breach of this Code.

17. (1) A former leader shall not, by acting for or on behalf of any person, entity, association, offer advice or participate in a negotiation or case to which the Government or public body is a party and where the former leader acted for or advised the Government or public body.

(2) A former leader shall not give advice to his or her client using information that is not available to the public concerning programs or policies of Government, public body or department with which he or she had a direct or substantial relationship, during the period of one year immediately prior to ceasing to be a leader.

Upon action of office

Part V – Proceedings of inspectorate.

18. (1) Any person who alleges that a leader has committed a breach of this Code may lodge a complaint to that effect with the Inspectorate and the Inspectorate shall register the complaint.

(2) Upon receipt of a complaint under subsection (1) of this section, the Inspectorate shall inquire into, or cause the complaint to be inquired into if satisfied that-

(a) the complaint is not trivial or frivolous and is not made in bad faith; and

(b) the subject matter of the complaint is not outside the jurisdiction of the Inspectorate.

(3) The Inspectorate’s decision not to inquire into or cause a complaint to be inquired into, shall not limit the Inspectorate’s power to make an inquiry generally into a matter on its own initiative.

(4) A complainant shall be entitled to be informed of any action the Inspectorate intends to take or has taken in respect of his or her complaint, and shall be afforded a hearing.

(5) Any person who knowingly gives false information to the Inspector General under this section commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment not exceeding two years or a fine not exceeding one hundred currency points or both.

Lodging of complaints

19. (1) Upon the completion of an inquiry under section 20, the Inspector General shall communicate his or her decision in his or her report to the authorised person with a copy to the person in breach of this Code and require the authorised person to implement his or her decision.

(2) The Inspector General’s report under subsection (1) of this section shall be made public and shall state whether the leader is or is not in breach of this Code in respect of the specific matters inquired into, and in the case of a breach, shall set out-

(a) the nature of the breach which the leader has been found to have committed;

(b) the circumstances of the breach;

(c) a brief summary of the evidence received during the inquiry into the breach; and

(d) the findings and decisions.

(3) In the case of criminal offences, the report may contain a recommendation that criminal proceedings be commenced against the leader or any other person

20. (1) Upon receipt of a report under section 21 containing a finding of a breach of this Code, the authorised person shall effect the decision of the Inspector General in writing within sixty days after receipt of the report.

Report of Inspectorate Action on report of Inspectorate

(2) The authorised person shall report to the Inspector General in writing within fourteen days after the expiration of the sixty days referred to in subsection (1) of this section, the action taken by him or her.

(3) A person dismissed, removed from office, or convicted for a breach of this Code shall not hold any other public office whether appointive or elective for five years effective from the date of dismissal or removal.

21. (1) Where according to any report submitted by the Inspector General under section 21 a leader is proved to have obtained any property through a breach of this Code, the leader shall, subject to any appeal which the leader may make under section 35, forfeit the property by virtue of that report and the property shall be held in trust for the Government or public body by an agent or broker appointed by the Inspector General until it is lawfully disposed of.

(2) The Inspector General may order a leader referred to in subsection (1) to pay by way of compensation to Government or public body such sum as in his or her opinion is just, having regard to the loss suffered by the Government or public body and such order shall be deemed to be a decree under section 25 of the Civil Procedure Act and shall be executed in the manner provided under section 39 of that Act.

Forfeiture and compensation

22. (1) The Inspector General may, during the course of his or her investigations or as a consequence of his or her findings, issue an order placing such restrictions as appear to him or her to be reasonable on the operation of any bank account of a leader or any person being investigated, for the purpose of ensuring payment to Government or public body or prevention of dissipation of any moneys derived from or related to the violation of this Code.

(2) The leader shall be allowed reasonable access to the account frozen under subsection (1) of this section and shall be allowed to withdraw such amount of money, as the Inspector General may deem reasonable in the circumstances.

(3) The Inspector General may, during the course of his or her investigations or as a consequence of his or her findings, issue an order placing such restrictions as appear to him or her to be reasonable, on the disposal of any property of a leader or any person being investigated for the purposes of compensation to the Government or public body or otherwise for the purpose of prevention of dissipation of the properties derived from or related to the violation of this Code.

23. The Inspectorate has powers and rights vested in the High Court of Uganda as regards attendance, swearing and examination of witnesses, the production and inspection of documents, enforcement of its orders and other matters necessary and proper for due exercise of its powers under this Code and, without limiting the general effect of the foregoing may-

Special powers of Inspector General Powers of Inspectorate to hear evidence etc.

(a) issue summons to any person requiring him or her to appear at the time and place mentioned in the summons, to testify to any matters before it and produce any document, book or paper relating to the allegation that he or she has in his or her possession or control;

(b) administer oaths and examine any person on oath, affirmation or otherwise; and

(c) during the inquiry receive such additional information as it considers relevant and necessary for dealing with the allegation before it.

24. (1) A person who provides information to the Inspectorate-

Protection of informers and witnesses

(a) shall be protected and his or her identity shall not be disclosed; and

(b) may be rewarded for his or her information and paid such amount of money as the Inspector -General may deem fit.

(2) A person who in good faith gives any information to the Inspectorate or assists it in the exercise of its functions shall not be punished in anyway for doing so.

(3) Any person who unlawfully discloses the identity of an informer or victimizes any person for giving information to or assisting the Inspectorate commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment not exceeding two years or a fine not exceeding one hundred currency points or both.

25. Subject to the provisions of this Code, the Inspectorate may, after consultation with the Minister and the Attorney General, make rules regulating its procedure under this Code.

26. When inquiring into an allegation under this Code, the Inspectorate shall observe the rules of natural justice.

27. Any witness called by the Inspectorate to give evidence at an inquiry by the Inspectorate shall be entitled to such allowances as may be determined from time to time by the Inspector General.

28. The Inspectorate may award costs against a person who makes allegations under this Code if the Inspectorate finds the allegations to be malicious or frivolous or vexatious or made in bad faith.

29. The Inspectorate shall when enforcing this Act, have all the powers conferred on it by Chapter Thirteen of the Constitution or any other law.

Procedure of Inspectorate Inspectorate to observe rules of natural justice Witnesses allowances Inspectorate to award costs Application of other powers of Inspectorate

Part VI – General

30. (1) The Inspectorate may, for the purpose of performing its functions under this Code, by order made and signed by the Inspector General or Deputy Inspector General, authorise any person under his or her control to inspect any bank account, share account, purchase account, expense account or any other safe or deposit book in a bank.

(2) An order made under subsection (1) of this section shall be sufficient authority for the disclosure or production by any person of any information, account, document or article required by the person so authorised.

(3) Any person who refuses or, who without reasonable cause, fails to comply with an order issued under this section, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding one hundred fifty currency points or imprisonment not exceeding three years or both.

31. (1) Where a Member of Parliament is in breach of this Code, the authorised person shall be the Speaker or Deputy Speaker of parliament and in case of the Speaker, the authorised person shall be the Committee of Parliament on Rules, Privileges and Discipline.

(2) Notwithstanding section 15 of the Local Governments Act, 1997 where the Inspector General has made findings with respect to a breach of this Code by a Chairperson of a district or sub county, or municipality, or a member of a tender board or a district service commission, the Inspector General’s decision shall be enforced without regard to the procedure laid down in that section.

Inspection of bank accounts Action against certain leaders Act No. 1 of 1997

(3) In the case of the District Chairperson, the authorised person shall be the District Council.

(4) In the case of the Subcounty Chairperson, the authorised person shall be the Subcounty Council.

(5) In the case of the District Speaker or Deputy Speaker and a member of the executive committee or councillor, the authorised person shall be the District Council.

(6) In the case of a Chairperson or Deputy Chairperson of a municipality, the authorised person shall be the Municipality Council.

(7) Notwithstanding any provision of this Code, the Inspector General and Deputy Inspector General shall declare their incomes, assets and liabilities to the Speaker of Parliament and when the Inspector General or Deputy Inspector General is in breach of this Code the authorised person shall be Parliament.

32. (1) Notwithstanding section 69 of the Local Governments Act, 1997 where the Inspector General has made findings with respect to violation of this Code by a Chief Administrative Officer or Town Clerk, the Inspector General’s decision shall be enforced without regard to the procedure stipulated in that section.

(2) In case of a Chief Administrative Officer, or Town Clerk or other employee of a District, the authorised person shall be the District Service Commission.

Action against Chief Administrative Officer and Town Clerk Act No. 1 of 1997

33. (1) A person aggrieved by a decision taken against him or her on the basis of findings contained in the report of the Inspector General under this Act, may appeal against the decision to the High Court

(2) An appeal under this section shall be made within thirty days after the notice of the findings has been brought to the attention of the person against whom it is made.

34. (1) Subject to this Code, no civil or criminal liability shall attach to any officer of the Inspectorate acting on the instructions of the Inspector General or Deputy Inspector General, for anything done in good faith by that officer in the performance of his or her duties under this Code.

(2) No inquiry, proceeding, process, or report of the Inspectorate shall-

(a) be invalid only by reason of an error or irregularity of form;

(b) be liable to be questioned, reviewed or quashed in any court except on appeal under section 35 of this Code.

35. A leader who commits a breach of this Code shall-

(a) in the case of a breach under subsection (7) of section 4, have the excess or undeclared property confiscated and forfeited to the Government;

(b) in the case of a breach under subsections (6) and (8) of section 4, be dismissed from or shall vacate office;

Appeals Protection of officers of Inspectorate Penalties for breach of Code

(c) in the case of a breach under subsection (6) of section 10, be liable to-

(i) forfeit the benefit equivalent to the gift, hospitality or benefit, to the Government or institution and shall stand warned;

(ii) be warned in writing; or

(iii) dismissal.

(d) in the case of a breach under sections 8(6), 10, 11, 14, 15(6) and 16 be liable to dismissal or shall vacate office.

36. (1) Any person who-

(a) without justification or lawful excuse, wilfully obstructs or hinders a person acting in the exercise of functions under this Code;

(b) divulges without lawful justification any information which he or she has obtained in the course of any duty conferred by this Code. commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment not exceeding two years or to a fine not exceeding one hundred currency points or both.

(2) A person who is convicted of an offence under this Code for which no penalty is prescribed is liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred fifty currency points or to imprisonment not exceeding three years or to both.

Offences

37. The Inspectorate shall include in its Statutory Report to Parliament under article 231 of the Constitution a report on its enforcement of this Code.

Division II—Offences against the administration of lawful authority.

CHAPTER IX—CORRUPTION AND THE ABUSE OF OFFICE.

85. Officers charged with administration of property of a special character, etc.

Any person who, being employed in the public service and being charged by virtue of that employment with any judicial or administrative duties respecting property of a special character, or respecting the carrying on of any manufacture, trade or business of a special character, and having acquired or holding, directly or indirectly, a private interest in any such property, manufacture, trade or business, discharges any such duties with respect to the property, manufacture, trade or business in which he or she has such interest or with respect to the conduct of any person in relation thereto commits a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for one year.

86. False claims by officials.

Any person who, being employed in the public service in such a capacity as to require him or her or to enable him or her to furnish returns or statements touching any sum payable or claimed to be payable to himself or herself or to any other person, or touching any other matter required to be certified for the purpose of any payment of money or delivery of goods to be made to any person, makes a return or statement touching any such matter which is, to his or her knowledge, false in any material particular, commits a misdemeanor.

87. Abuse of office.

(1) A person who, being employed in a public body or a company in which the Government has shares, does or directs to be done an arbitrary act prejudicial to the interests of his or her employer or of any other person, in abuse of the authority of his or her office, commits an offence and is liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years.
(2) Where a person is convicted of an offence under subsection (1) and the act constituting the offence was done for the purposes of gain, the court shall, in addition to any other penalty it may impose, order that anything received as a consequence of the act be forfeited to the Government.

88. Consent of the Director of Public Prosecutions.

A person shall not be prosecuted for an offence under section 85, 86 or 87 without the written consent of the Director of Public Prosecutions.

89. False certificates by public officers.

Any person who, being authorised or required by law to give any certificate touching any matter by virtue whereof the rights of any person may be prejudicially affected, gives a certificate which is, to his or her knowledge, false in any material particular commits a misdemeanor.

90. Unauthorised administration of oaths.

Any person who administers an oath or takes a solemn declaration or affirmation or affidavit, touching any matter with respect to which he or she has not by law any authority to do so commits a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for one year; except that this section shall not apply to an oath, declaration, affirmation or affidavit administered by or taken before a magistrate or a justice of the peace in any matter relating to the preservation of the peace or the punishment of offences or relating to inquiries respecting sudden deaths, nor to an oath, declaration, affirmation or affidavit administered or taken for some purpose which is lawful under the laws of another country, or for the purpose of giving validity to an instrument in writing which is intended to be used in another country.

91. False assumption of authority.

Any person who—

not being a judicial officer, assumes to act as a judicial officer;

without authority assumes to act as a person having authority by law to administer an oath or take a solemn declaration or affirmation or affidavit or to do any other act of a public nature which can only be done by persons authorised by law to do so; or

represents himself or herself to be a person authorised by law to
sign a document testifying to the contents of any register or record kept by lawful authority, or testifying to any fact or event, and signs such document as being so authorised, when he or she is not, and knows that he or she is not, in fact, so authorised, commits a misdemeanor.

92. Personating public officers.

Any person who—

personates any person employed in the public service on an occasion when the latter is required to do any act or attend in any place by virtue of his or her employment; or

falsely represents himself or herself to be a person employed in the public service and assumes to do any act or to attend in any place for the purpose of doing any act by virtue of such employment,
commits a misdemeanor and is liable to imprisonment for three years.

93. Threat of injury to persons employed in public service.

Whoever holds out any threat of injury to any person employed in the public service or to any person in whom he or she believes that person employed in the public service to be interested, for the purpose of inducing that person employed in the public service to do any act or to forbear or delay to do any act connected with the exercise of the public functions of such person employed in the public service, commits a misdemeanor.

Summary

Uganda GDP Last Previous Highest Lowest Unit
GDP 21.48 20.03 21.48 0.42 USD Billion
GDP Growth Rate 3.42 -1.27 5.83 -1.65 percent
GDP Annual Growth Rate 6.00 0.13 15.20 0.13 percent
GDP per capita 1365.13 1334.14 1365.13 650.51 USD
Gross Fixed Capital Formation 19477.00 13249.00 19477.00 1160.00 UGX Billion
GDP per capita PPP 1165.01 1164.81 1165.01 514.67 USD
GDP Constant Prices 13307.05 12866.42 13307.05 3795.75 UGX Billion

Address Format

RECIPIENT
P.O. Box OFFICE_BOX_NUMBER
LOCALITY
UGANDA

Sample

Tenywa Obua
P.O. Box 23559
KAMPALA
UGANDA

Annual Cases

Budget Autonomy Yes
Annual Budget of the Agency For FY 2014/15 Ushs 38billion, equivalent to USD 14,074,074
Per Capital Expenditure US ($) 0.04
Expeniture as % of the GDP 0.003%
Are employees protected by law from recrimination or other negative consequences when reporting corruption (i.e. whistle-blowing)? Yes
Does your country have freedom of information legislation? Yes
Does your country have conflict of interest legislation? Yes
Does your country have a financial disclosure system to help prevent conflicts of interest? Yes
Who appoints the head of your agency? The President appoints the Inspector General of Government and the deputies, with approval of Parliament
Who has the authority to remove the head of the ACA? The removal of the head of the Institution is provided for under Article 224 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda. The provision states that, the Inspector General or a Deputy Inspector General may be removed from office by the President on the recommendation of a Special tribunal by parliament only for – inability to perform the functions arising from infirmity of body or mind; misconduct, misbehavior or conduct unbecoming of the holder of the office: or Incompetence
Is there any term limit for the head of the ACA? Yes , The Inspector General of Government serves a four year term renewable only once i.e maximum of 8 years.
Does your agency measure performance? Yes
Number of investigations launched
Number of investigations completed
Other, please specify
Number of outreach activities delivered
Full access to Government Yes

Risk

Sovereign risk

Singapore will continue to boast a large stock of foreign-exchange reserves, and the government will enjoy a positive net-asset position. Moreover, all public debt is denominated in Singapore dollars, meaning that debt-servicing costs are not vulnerable to exchange-rate movements.

Banking sector risk

Banks enjoy high levels of liquidity and remain well capitalised. These conditions are expected to persist in the next two years. Local banks do have a presence in some higher-risk markets, however, which could undermine the health of Singapore’s banking sector.

Political risk

The People’s Action Party (PAP) will control parliamentary proceedings for the foreseeable future, given its huge legislative majority. Political risk will increase slightly as the next election, which is due by January 2017, approaches. However, as the PAP’s re-election is all but guaranteed, the election process is not expected to cause turbulence in the local financial markets.

Economic structure risk

A large and vibrant manufacturing sector, in addition to a dominant services sector, makes Singapore’s economy more balanced. However, its reliance on exports to drive economic growth means that it is vulnerable to a downturn in global demand. Restrictions on immigration are also a risk to economic growth.

Travel Risk

Security

The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The Government of Canada takes the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provides credible and timely information in its Travel Advice. In the event of a crisis situation that requires evacuation, the Government of Canada’s policy is to provide safe transportation to the closest safe location. The Government of Canada will assist you in leaving a country or a region as a last resort, when all means of commercial or personal transportation have been exhausted. This service is provided on a cost-recovery basis. Onward travel is at your personal expense. Situations vary from one location to another, and there may be constraints on government resources that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide assistance, particularly in countries or regions where the potential for violent conflict or political instability is high.

Area bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) (see Advisory)

The situation remains volatile in the eastern part of neighbouring DRC and could lead to possible incursions into western Uganda by DRC rebels. Tensions between tribes remain in the Western region, and led to attacks against police stations and military barracks in July 2014, which resulted in dozens of casualties, including civilians.

Karamoja region (see Advisory)

Banditry, lawlessness and potential for inter-ethnic clashes pose a risk in the Karamoja region.

Area bordering South Sudan (see Advisory)

There are risks associated with banditry and with the influx of refugees fleeing the conflict in neighbouring South Sudan.

Terrorism

Regional terror groups, including those associated with al Qaeda and al-Shabaab, continue to threaten Western interests and other potential targets in Uganda.

On April 3, 2015, the Uganda Police Force issued a terror alert indicating that educational institutions along the Kampala-Jinja highway could be targeted for attacks. On March 25, 2015, the U.S. Embassy in Kampala issued a security message providing the following information to their nationals: “The U.S Embassy has received information of possible terrorist threats to locations where Westerners, including U.S. citizens, congregate in Kampala, and that an attack may take place soon. Out of an abundance of caution, the U.S. Mission has cancelled some non-essential events scheduled at local hotels in the coming days. U.S. citizens staying or visiting hotels should expect increased security sweeps and delays when entering or exiting hotel areas.

The September 21, 2013, attack on an upscale Nairobi mall illustrates the threat of attacks on civilians in East Africa. In recent years, attacks, some resulting in large numbers of casualties, have been carried out in areas popular among tourists and expatriates in Uganda. Although no major attack has occurred recently, further attacks of a similar nature cannot be ruled out.

Crime

Armed banditry, car thefts and muggings occur throughout the country. Cases of armed robbery against pedestrians have been reported, even during day time. Petty crime, including pickpocketing, purse and jewellery snatching, and theft from hotel rooms and vehicles, is common. Keep your vehicle doors locked at all times, windows closed and personal belongings, including handbags, safely stored. Items such as laptops and briefcases should not be left in unattended vehicles. Remain vigilant when using public transportation or walking along deserted streets. Avoid walking at night.

There has been an increase in reports of taxi/matatu (minibus) operators robbing their passengers and stranding them far from their destination. Avoid taxis/matatus that have only one or two passengers and ensure that all your personal belongings are secure at all times when using public transportation.

Demonstrations

Demonstrations occur regularly, in many parts of the country, and have led to violence in the past. Avoid all gatherings and demonstrations, as they may turn violent without warning. Monitor local news reports and follow the advice of local authorities.

Road travel

Traffic drives on the left. A lack of traffic signs, local driving habits, wandering animals, pedestrians and poor road conditions pose risks. Pedestrians should exercise caution when crossing roads. There are many fatal road accidents in Uganda. The Jinja“Kampala and Kampala“Masaka roads are of particular concern. Alcohol is often a contributing factor to accidents, particularly at night. Highway travel is dangerous, especially after dark, because of banditry and poor road conditions. Avoid driving outside major cities after dark.

In the event of an accident, Ugandan law requires drivers to stop and exchange information and assistance. There is a possibility of mob anger if the accident has caused serious injury. In such cases, you are advised to remain in your vehicle and drive to the nearest police station to report the accident.

If travelling to Uganda by road, you should get information at border police stations regarding the security situation at the destinations you intend to visit.

Public Transportation

Avoid intercity buses (especially overnight long-distance buses) and vans. Fatal accidents caused by reckless driving, excessive speed and poor vehicle maintenance have occurred in the past.

Exercise caution when using other forms of public transportation such as matatus and boda-bodas (scooter taxis) and ensure that the vehicle is in good condition before departure. If you opt to travel by boda-boda, wear a helmet at all times.

Ferry accidents are not uncommon, due to overloading and poor maintenance of some vessels. Do not board vessels that appear overloaded or unseaworthy.

See Transportation Safety in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.

Game parks and reserves

You are advised to contact the Uganda Wildlife Authority before visiting any park or wildlife reserve. Visits to game parks and reserves should be undertaken only with a reputable tour company.

Fraud

Fraud involving credit cards, traveller’s cheques and wire transfers is common in Uganda. Exercise caution when using automated banking machines (ABMs) and protect your personal banking information. Business fraud also occurs frequently. These scams range from attempts to engage business people in fictitious money transfer schemes, to fraudulent solicitations to supply goods in fulfillment of non-existent Ugandan government contracts. Any unsolicited business proposal, particularly land transactions, should be carefully scrutinized before funds are committed, goods or services are provided or travel is undertaken. See Overseas Fraud for more information.

General safety information

Don’t show signs of affluence. Don’t venture out alone after dark in dimly lit backstreets. Travelling in groups is recommended at any time.

Carry a photocopy of your passport’s identification page and the page containing your visa, and keep the original in a secure place.

Do not accept food or drinks from strangers, even children, as it may be drugged. If attacked, do not resist, as offering resistance may result in violence.

Women should be particularly cautious when travelling alone in Uganda. See Her Own Way: A Woman’s Safe-Travel Guide for more information.

Tourist facilities and infrastructure are adequate in Kampala but limited elsewhere in the country.

In the event of an emergency, call 999.

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