TUNISIA BACKGROUND CHECK

GENERAL INFORMATION

GDP USD46.99bn (World ranking 85, World Bank 2013)
Population 10.89 million (World ranking 79, World Bank 2013)
Form of state Republic
Head of government President Mohamed Beji Caid Essebsi
Next elections Legislative October 2019, presidential November 2019

 

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Data Protection

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Livre II. – Infractions diverses, leur punition.

Titre premier. – Attentats contre l’ordre public.

Chapitre III. – Des infractions commises par les fonctionnaires publics ou assimilés dans l’exercice ou à l’occasion de l’exercice de leurs fonctions.

Section II. – De la corruption

Article 83 (nouveau). – Toute personne ayant la qualité de fonctionnaire public ou assimilé conformément aux dispositions de la présente loi, qui aura agréé, sans droit, directement ou indirectement, soit pour lui-même, soit pour autrui, des dons, promesses, présents ou avantages de quelque nature que ce soit pour accomplir un acte lié à sa fonction, même juste, mais non sujet à contrepartie ou pour faciliter l’accomplissement d’un acte en rapport avec les attributions de sa fonction, ou pour s’abstenir d’accomplir un acte de sa fonction, auquel il est tenu, est puni de dix ans d’emprisonnement et d’une amende double de la valeur des présents reçus ou des promesses agréées, sans qu’elle puisse être inférieure à dix mille dinars.
Le tribunal prononce à l’encontre du condamné, par le même jugement, l’interdiction d’exercer les fonctions publiques, de gérer les services publics et de les représenter.

Article 84 (nouveau). – Si le fonctionnaire public ou assimilé a provoqué la corruption, la peine prévue à l’article 83 (nouveau) de ce code sera portée au double.

Article 85 (nouveau). – Si le fonctionnaire public ou assimilé a accepté des dons, promesses, présents ou avantages de quelque nature que ce soit en récompense d’actes qu’il a accomplis et qui sont liés à sa fonction, mais non sujet à contre partie, ou d’un acte qu’il s’est abstenu de faire alors qu’il est tenu de ne pas faire, est puni de cinq ans d’emprisonnement et de cinq mille dinars d’amende.

Article 86.- Dans les cas prévus aux trois articles précédents, le coupable peut être interdit, en tout ou en partie, des droits visés à l’article 5.

Article 87 (nouveau). – Toute personne ayant abusé de son influence ou de ses liens réels ou supposés auprès d’un fonctionnaire public ou assimilé et qui aura accepté, directement ou indirectement des dons, ou promesses de dons, ou présents, ou avantages de quelque nature que ce soit en vue d’obtenir des droits on des avantages au profit d’autrui, même justes, est puni de trois ans d’emprisonnement et de trois mille dinars d’amende. La tentative est punissable.

La peine sera portée au double si l’auteur de l’acte est un fonctionnaire public ou assimilé.

Article 87 (bis). – Est puni de cinq ans d’emprisonnement et d’une amende de cinq mille dinars, tout fonctionnaire public ou assimilé qui aura agréé, sans droit, soit pour lui même, soit pour autrui, directement ou indirectement, des dons ou promesses de dons ou présents ou avantages de quelque nature que ce soit en vue d’octroyer à autrui un avantage injustifié par un acte contraire aux dispositions législatives et réglementaires ayant pour objet de garantir la liberté de participation et l’égalité des chances dans les marchés passés par les établissements publics, les entreprises publiques, les offices, les collectivités locales et les sociétés dans lesquelles l’Etat ou les collectivités locales participent, directement ou indirectement à son capital.

Article 88.- Est puni de vingt ans d’emprisonnement, le juge qui, à l’occasion d’une infraction passible de la peine de mort ou de l’emprisonnement à vie, s’est laissé corrompre, en faveur ou au préjudice de l’inculpé.

Article 89.- Est puni le juge corrompu de la même peine prononcée contre le prévenu par l’effet de la corruption, à condition que la peine prononcée envers ce juge ne soit inférieure à dix ans d’emprisonnement.

Article 90.- Est puni d’un an d’emprisonnement tout juge qui, hors les cas prévus aux articles 83 et suivants, ne s’est pas récusé après avoir reçu, ouvertement ou en cachette, de l’une des parties à l’instance pendante devant lui, des objets, valeurs ou sommes d’argents.

Article 91 (nouveau).- Est punie de cinq ans d’emprisonnement et de cinq mille dinars d’amende, toute personne qui aura corrompu ou tenté de corrompre par des dons ou promesse de dons, ou présents ou avantages de quelque nature que ce soit l’une des personnes visées a l’article 82 (nouveau) du présent code en vue d’accomplir un acte lié à sa l’onction, même juste, mais non sujet à contrepartie, ou de faciliter l’accomplissement d’un acte lié a sa fonction, ou de s’abstenir d’accomplir un acte qu’il est de son devoir de faire.

Cette peine est applicable a toute personne ayant servi d’intermédiaire entre le corrupteur et le corrompu.

La peine sera portée au double si les personnes visées à l’article 82 (nouveau) ont été contraintes à accomplir les actes précités par voies de fait ou menaces exercées sur elles personnellement ou sur l’un des membres de leur famille.

Article 92 (nouveau). – La peine est d’un an d’emprisonnement et de mille dinars d’amende, si la tentative de corruption n’a eu aucun effet.

Elle est de deux ans d’emprisonnement et de deux mille dinars d’amende si la tentative de contrainte par voies de fait ou menaces n’a eu aucun effet.

Article 93. – Est absous le corrupteur ou l’intermédiaire qui, avant toute poursuite, révèle volontairement le fait de corruption et, en même temps, en rapporte la preuve.

Article 94. – Dans tous les cas de corruption, les choses données ou reçues sont confisquées au profit de l’État.

The penal code was issued in 1913. From article 83 to 94, the criminal code mainly regulates the conduct of the public service officials and the bribers:

1. Anyone with the quality of public officer or equivalent in accordance with the provisions of this Act, to be approved, without the right, directly or indirectly either for himself or for others, gifts, promises, present or advantages of any kind to perform an act related to its function, even right, but not subject to return or to facilitate the achievement of an act related to the duties of his office, or to abstain from doing an act of its function, which it is held, is punished by ten years imprisonment and a fine of double the value of these receipts approved or promises, but it can be less than ten thousand dinars.

2. If the public official or similar has accepted gifts, promises, present or advantages of any kind as a reward for acts that he has made and that are related to its function, but not subject against a party or an act that has failed to do as he must not do, is punished by five years imprisonment and five thousand dinars fine.

3. Anyone who has abused his influence or his real or supposed links to a public official or similar and which accepts, directly or indirect donations or pledges, or present, or advantages of any kind to obtain rights on benefits for the benefit of others, even righteous, is punished by three years’ imprisonment and three thousand dinars fine. The attempt is punishable.

The penalty shall be doubled if the perpetrator is a public official or similar.

Summary

Calendar GMT Reference Actual Previous Consensus Forecast
2013-03-29 06:30 PM Q4 2012 4.0% 3.7% (R)

Risk

Sovereign risk

The success of the end-2014 elections (in terms of their validity and peacefulness) and the ascension to power in early 2015 of people committed to working within the political system and to prudent economic reform prompted an upgrade of the sovereign risk rating in February from CCC to B. Nevertheless, large fiscal and current-account deficits in 2015‘16 will continue to push up Tunisia’s borrowing needs.

Banking sector risk

The banking sector remains weak. The government has promised reform, including to the inefficient state banks, but it will remain distracted until the political scene settles down further. Indeed, the much-needed recapitalisation of the banking sector has been delayed until later in 2015, when the new government will have established itself.

Political risk

Political tensions will recede now that the elections have been concluded and new coalition government agreed. However, the broad nature of the coalition, which is a mix of secular and Islamist parties, will make it fragile, and political instability would increase again if it broke apart. The persistent threat of terrorism was highlighted by an attack on the Bardo Museum in mid-March.

Economic structure risk

Economic structure risk remains high, owing to Tunisia’s dependence on the EU for trade, remittances and tourism. Financial assistance from the West is tied to political and economic reform; although the new government is expected to continue to follow this policy advice, it will be slow to implement more unpopular reforms, such as wide-ranging privatisation.

Travel Risk

Security

The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The Government of Canada takes the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provides credible and timely information in its Travel Advice. In the event of a crisis situation that requires evacuation, the Government of Canada’s policy is to provide safe transportation to the closest safe location. The Government of Canada will assist you in leaving a country or a region as a last resort, when all means of commercial or personal transportation have been exhausted. This service is provided on a cost-recovery basis. Onward travel is at your personal expense. Situations vary from one location to another, and there may be constraints on government resources that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide assistance, particularly in countries or regions where the potential for violent conflict or political instability is high.

Mount Chaambi National Park and Tunisia’s Greater South (see Advisory)

There is an increased threat of kidnapping and terrorism in the area of the Mount Chaambi National Park. Military operations against suspected terrorists have been ongoing in the regions of Kef, Jendouba and Kasserine, including Mount Chaambi, since the end of April 2013. The use of improvised explosive device has been reported in these areas.

Exercise a high degree of caution when travelling the Goubellat-Dougga region in the governorate of Beja.

You must inform the authorities if you plan to travel overland through the Sahara, and give a copy of your itinerary, including your point of departure, to the National Guard Post at Médenine. Such travel should be undertaken in a group accompanied by an experienced tour guide, a car equipped with features such as a global positioning system and adequate supplies. Due to the intense heat, travel in the Sahara during the months of July and August is not recommended.

Exercise a high degree of caution, regularly review your security practices and remain alert to the changing situation.

Demonstrations

Tunisia is facing an increased risk of potentially violent demonstrations. Public order is regularly disrupted for various reasons, including political, social and economic tensions. These disruptions take the form of public protests, labour strikes, roadblocks and other disturbances that on many occasions have deteriorated into violent clashes between members of extremist movements, the police and/or civil society demonstrators, resulting in considerable property damage, injuries and deaths. There have been reports of members of extremist movements harassing foreigners.

Exercise a high degree of caution, regularly review your security practices and remain alert to the changing situation, follow the advice of local authorities, avoid all confrontations, public gatherings and areas where unrest or other demonstrations could occur, since the situation could deteriorate suddenly.

Increased threat of attacks and kidnappings

In 2013, the French military assisted the Malian government in efforts to repel armed rebels. Terrorist groups in the region declared their intention to increase attacks and kidnappings targeting Westerners. While the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali has been supporting the transitional authorities in stabilizing the region since July 2013, citizens of countries supporting the intervention are still at particular risk, but all travellers should exercise increased vigilance in the region.

On September 21, 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) released a statement threatening retaliation for the American -led coalition campaign against ISIL in Iraq and Syria. The statement encouraged opportunistic and indiscriminate attacks against citizens and interests of countries supporting the coalition, including Canadians. Individuals and terrorist groups in the region may be inspired to carry out attacks in a show of solidarity with ISIL. Canadians could also be targeted by a terrorist attack and be considered prime kidnapping targets. Exercise a high degree of personal security awareness at all times, maintain a heightened level of vigilance and be aware of your surroundings at all times.

Terrorism and kidnappings

There is a general threat of terrorism and kidnapping in Tunisia. Terrorist activity has increased in Tunisia over the past year. Attacks could be indiscriminate, including in places frequented by expatriates and foreign travellers. Maintain a high level of vigilance at all times.

In the past year, a number of suspected terrorists and arms traffickers have been captured in various regions of the country, including the capital Tunis, indicating that extremist elements are present and that the instability in Libya and elsewhere in the Middle East and North Africa continues to pose a general threat to the security of foreigners, religious sites, foreign institutions and tourist facilities. On March 18, 2015, an attack on the Tunisian parliament and the Bardo National Museum left more than 20 dead, including many foreign tourists.

Given the threat of terrorism and kidnappings, exercise increased caution, including near tourist facilities, and particularly in the Greater South (in all areas south of, and including, the towns of Nefta, Douz, Médenine and Zarzis), in areas near the border with Libya and Algeria, the Mount Chaambi National Park including the regions of Le Kef, Jendouba and Beja (see regional advisory). Regularly review your security practices and remain alert to the changing situation.

Crime

Reports of petty crime, including theft, pickpocketing, purse snatching and scams, are much more frequent since the revolution. Watch out for pickpockets in public places and tourist areas. Ensure personal belongings are secure and carry photocopies of identification documents and your passport at all times. Store originals in a safe place.

Women’s safety

Women travelling alone may be subject to certain forms of harassment and verbal abuse. Please consult our publication entitled Her Own Way: A Woman’s Guide to Safe and Successful Travel for safe travel advice specifically for women.

fraud

Cases of young Tunisian men pursuing marriage with older Canadian women for financial gain or in order to gain entry to Canada have been reported in coastal resorts. See our Overseas Fraud page for more information on scams abroad.

Borders

Carefully plan any travel in the southern regions of Tunisia and along the Libyan and Algerian borders, as regional tensions increase the risk of terrorism or exposure to other disturbances.

Remain vigilant because of the risk of crime, political demonstrations and road blocks in these regions, which have led to confrontations.

While the borders with Algeria and Libya are open, they may close on short notice. Consult local authorities for the latest security information. We strongly encourage you to register through the Registration of Canadians Abroad service, monitor local news reports, stay well informed and consult the Travel Advice for these two countries prior to departure.

Transportation

Driving can be dangerous, particularly after dark. Traffic signs and signals are routinely ignored. Be especially cautious as cars rarely stop at pedestrian crosswalks or stoplights. Motorists sometimes drive on the wrong side of the road and ignore priority lanes. Bicycles, mopeds and motorcycles often operate without sufficient lights and reflectors, and regularly dart in and out of traffic. Pedestrians compound the problem by dodging traffic and ignoring vehicles. Police officers frequently stop cars for inspection, especially rental cars.

Taxis are available but may be scarce in major cities at peak hours.

Buses are crowded.

Rail service is generally safe, fast and efficient. Petty crime occurs on city and inter-city trains. Be extremely cautious with your belongings at all times.

See Transportation Safety in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.

Soccer games

Avoid the crowds that can form at soccer matches as such events have sometimes led to incidents of violence.

General safety information

Despite the ongoing political transition, the security situation remains fragile. There has been a notable increase in the number of violent acts committed by extremists since early 2013. Although these excesses are widely condemned by the authorities, enforcing the law does not always seem possible, which makes it difficult at times to restore order.

You should be accompanied by a guide on your travels or use a guide to help plan your travel.

Address Format

RECIPIENT
[BUILDING]
[SUBBUILDING]
[HOUSE_NUMBER] STREET_NAME
POSTALCODE LOCALITY
TUNISIA

Sample

Madame B. Fatma
42 Avenue de la Liberté
3100 KAIROUAN
TUNISIA

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