RWANDA BACKGROUND CHECK

GENERAL INFORMATION

GDP USD7.103bn (World ranking 141, World Bank 2012)
Population 11.46 million (World ranking 73, World Bank 2012)
Form of state Republic, presidential & multparty system
Head of government President Paul Kagame
Next elections Presidential August 2017, legislative September 2018

 

CURRENT LOCAL TIME

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(Comes into force on the date of its publication in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda. Kigali, on 07/08/2003.)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title 1. LAW RELATED TO THE PUNISHMENT OF CORRUPTION AND RELATED OFFENCES

Title 2. PREVENTION OF CORRUPTION AND RELATED OFFENCES

Chapter 1. MEASURES RELATING TO THE PREVENTION OF CORRUPTION AND

Title 3. PUNISHMENT OF CORRUPTION AND RELATED OFFENCES

Chapter 1. PUNISHMENT OF CORRUPTION

Section 1. Punishment of passive corruption

Section 2. Punishment of active corruption

Chapter 2. PUNISHMENT OF OFFENCES RELATED TO CORRUPTION

Section 1. Punishment of the acts of demanding, receiving in excess of the justified, exempting from tax or non taxation, giving away for free or at a very low price, public property by public servants

Section 2. Punishment of trafficking of influence

Section 3. Punishment of favoritism

Section 4. Punishment of the seeking of benefits by employees from activities outside of their attributions

Section 5. Punishment of illicit enrichment

Section 6. Punishment of laundering

Chapter 3. COMMON PROVISIONS FOR THE PUNISHMENT OF CORRUPTION AND RELATED OFFENCES

Chapter 4. THE LIABILITY OF LEGAL ENTITIES

Chapter 5. MEASURES TO FACILITATE THE COLLECTION OF EVIDENCE

Section 1. Evidence and protection of witnesses

Section 2. Mitigation measures

Chapter 6. FINAL PROVISIONS

Title 1. LAW RELATED TO THE PUNISHMENT OF CORRUPTION AND RELATED OFFENCES

Article: 1

This law aims at preventing, suppressing and punishing corruption and related offences committed in service sector organs, public and private institutions as well as in non-governmental organizations.

Article: 2

In this Law:

a) “Public service” refers to services that should be delivered to the public and the non-fulfillment of which, by the official responsible, would cause harm or loss to the welfare of the beneficiaries;

b) “Measures of the prevention of corruption and related offences” are any procedures aimed at preventing corruption and related offences from being committed;

c) “Public servant” refers to any person with public authority of whatever rank, or one with ‘ public mandate either through regular election or by civil service appointment, one in charge of state mission or public service, who is involved in the management of the property of the State, District, Municipality, Town, City, Province, a public service organ, public company or enterprise;

d) “Laundering” refers to the fact of facilitating by whatever means, the justification of the source of property and revenue as well as profit obtained by the author of an offence provided for by this law. Equally constituting “laundering” is the fact of lending support by safe guarding, concealing or converting by direct or indirect means, a product that is a result of an offence provided for by this laws :

e) “State organs” constitute public service sector organs utilizing the property of the State and that of public institutions.

Title 2. PREVENTION OF CORRUPTION AND RELATED OFFENCES

Chapter 1. MEASURES RELATING TO THE PREVENTION OF CORRUPTION AND

Article: 3

The officials in organs of the public service and public institutions, those in private institutions, companies and non governmental organizations are under obligation to set up mechanisms for the prevention of corruption and related offences.

Article: 4

To prevent corruption and related offences, every institution and public establishment must, at least:

a) have its own procedure manual describing the decision making process; b) determine the time limit for decision making and the related regulations; c) respect the, procedure of public invitation to tender;

d) have an internal audit department;

e) present a report to the relevant authorities;

f) adopt a code of conduct for its officials and employees;

g) recruit its employees by competition;

h) ensure professional ethics;

i) ensure equal treatment of those seeking services without subjecting them to delaying and tiresome manoeuvres.

Article: 5

To prevent corruption and related offences, private ‘institutions and non governmental organizations which are not charged with providing services that are of public interest must, in providing these services, avoid inequality and discrimination of any kind with regard to beneficiaries with equal rights.

Article: 6

Notwithstanding provisions of international conventions ratified by Rwanda, institutions and international organizations operating or wishing to operate in Rwanda must set up mechanisms for the prevention of corruption and related offences.

Article: 7

Notwithstanding legal provisions governing employees of public and private services organs, the employer must inform his or her new workers about what can lead them into corruption and related offences as well as the disastrous consequences. The employer must also bring to the employee’s knowledge the laws governing the code of conduct of the level at which he or she will be employed. This code must be displayed in an open place.

Notwithstanding legal provisions governing the employees of public and private services organs, the employer must inform his or her employees and the public about the disciplinary sanctions imposed on employees found guilty of corruption and related offences.

Article: 8

Every senior official must conscientiously and in transparency evaluate his or her subordinates with regard to corruption and related offences. He or she also has the obligation of regularly sensitizing his or her subordinates about the dangers of corruption.

Article: 9

Notwithstanding the legal provisions governing the Press, the Press must get involved in the prevention and the tight against any act of corruption and related offences by publicizing the acts of corruption and related offences discovered in all sector service organs.

Institutions involved in the prevention and fight against corruption must put in place mechanisms of collaborating with the press in this respect.

Title 3. PUNISHMENT OF CORRUPTION AND RELATED OFFENCES

Chapter 1. PUNISHMENT OF CORRUPTION

Section 1. Punishment of passive corruption

Article: 10

Whoever will have explicitly of implicitly demanded, indirectly or directly received gifts or any other profit for oneself or for others, or who will have accepted it as a promise in order to render a service within his or her function, mission, mandate or whoever will have used them to do it, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of between 2 and 5 years and a fine ranging from twice to 10 times the value of illicit profit’ solicited.

Article: 11

Whoever will have explicitly or implicitly demanded, indirectly or directly received gifts or any other illicit profit for oneself or for others or who will have accepted it as a promise in order to accomplish an illegal act or refrain from carrying out his or her duties, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of between 5 years to10 years and a fine ranging from twice to 10 times the value of illicit profit solicited.

Article: 12

Notwithstanding heavy sentences provided for by other penal provisions, whoever mentioned in articles 11 and 12 of this law, who will have explicitly or implicitly demanded, benefited from or carried out sexual acts of unconsented nature or who will have accepted it as a promise in order to accomplish, or refrain from carrying out his or her duties shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment provided for in articles 11 and 12 of this law, in accordance with the distinctions therein established, and a fine ranging from 50,000 RWF to 1,000,000 RWF.

Article: 13

Notwithstanding provisions of articles 11 and 12, any judge or arbitrator who will be found guilty of corruption ‘ and related offences that influenced the sentence pronounced, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of between 15 and 20 years and a fine ranging from twice to 10 times the value of the profit solicited.

If by the effect of corruption in the said hearing, one was sentenced to a term of imprisonment of more than 20 years, this sentence will be applied to the judge found guilty of corruption.

Every member of the judiciary, public prosecution or police force who will be found guilty of receiving or accepting presents or promises in order to exert an influence on the taking of an unfair ‘decision, will be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of between 10 and 15 years and a fine ranging from twice to 10 times the value of illicit profit demanded.

Section 2. Punishment of active corruption

Article: 14

Whoever will have explicitly or implicitly offered, indirectly or directly proposed, gifts or any other illicit profit, to a person in charge of a function, mission or mandate or who will have promised it in order to render for him or her or for somebody else a service that is within his or her attributions or who will use the latter for that service to be rendered, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of between 2 and 5 years and a fine ranging from twice to 10 times the value of illicit profit accorded.

Article: 15

Whoever will have explicitly or implicitly offered, indirectly or directly proposed, accorded gifts or any other illicit profit, to a person in charge of a function, mission. or mandate or who will have promised it in order for him/her or somebody else to be rendered an illegal service or to refrain from carrying ‘out the usual duties, shall’ be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of between 5 and

10 years and a fine ranging from twice to 10 times the value of illicit profit offered.

Article: 16

Notwithstanding heavier penalties provided for by other legal provisions, whoever will have explicitly or implicitly, attempted to or carried out sexual acts of an unconsented nature or will have promised them in order to accomplish or refrain from his or her duties, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment provided for in articles 1 1 and 12 of this law, in accordance with the distinctions found, therein and a fine ranging from 50.000 RWF to 1,000,000 RWF.

Chapter 2. PUNISHMENT OF OFFENCES RELATED TO CORRUPTION

Section 1. Punishment of the acts of demanding, receiving in excess of the justified, exempting from tax or non taxation, giving away for free or at a very low price, public property by public servants.

Article: 17

Any public servant who will be found guilty of misappropriation of public funds by arranging to receive, demanding or knowingly receive what was more than due for fees, taxes, contributions, fines or surety, revenues or interests, benefits or salaries, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of between 2 and 5 years and a fine ranging from twice to 10 times the value of illicit profit received.

Article: 18

Any public servant who, in whatever form or for whatever motive, without authorization by law, will have accorded exemptions from fees, duties, taxes, fines or surety and other fees or will have effected freely or at an unsuitable price, the delivery of public goods and services, shall be sentenced in accordance with article 18 of this law.

Section 2. Punishment of trafficking of influence

Article: 19

Whoever will have explicitly or implicitly, solicited, promised, or directly or indirectly received gifts or any other illicit profit for himself or herself or somebody else, whether the exerted influence produces expected results or not, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of between 2 and 5 years and a fine ranging from twice to 10 times the value of illicit profit solicited, promised or received

Article: 20

Anybody who will have explicitly or implicitly, offered to somebody else, attempted to give, promised directly or indirectly, gifts or any other illicit profit intending by use of authority or acquaintances to influence decision making by another person, whether the illicit, profit is for himself or herself or for somebody else, whether the exerted influence produces the expected results or not, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of between 2 and 5 years and a fine ranging from twice to 10 times the value of illicit profit given or promised.

Article: 21

Notwithstanding heavier sentences provided for by other penal provisions, whoever will have explicitly or implicitly demanded, benefited from, carried out sexual acts of an unconsented nature or will have promised, them asserting himself or herself as being capable of influencing decision making by another person, whether the exerted influence produces expected results or not, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of between 2 and 5 years and a fine ranging from 50,000 RWF to 1,000,000 RWF.

Section 3. Punishment of favoritism

Article: 22

Any official of a private institution or his or her representative whose mission is connected with public interest, who will have taken a decision based on favoritism, nepotism or enmity shown with regard to a person seeking service, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of between 2 and 5 years and a fine ranging from 50,000 RWF to 1,000,000 RWF.

Section 4. Punishment of the seeking of benefits by employees from activities outside of their attributions.

Article: 23

A sentence of a term of imprisonment of between 2 and 5 years and a fine ranging from twice to 10 times the value of illicit profit received shall be imposed on:

a) any public servant and any other person who openly, by fictitiously effected acts or fraudulent representation of one’s identity by use of third party, will have taken or accepted to receive, in violation of the law governing him or her, whatever benefits from acts, public tenders, in public enterprises or others of which he or she has or had, at the time of commission of the act, whether as a whole or in part, the administration or the supervision of,

b) any public servant and any other person who will have, in violation of laws which govern him or her, taken whatever benefits, from an affaire for which he or she was in charge of authorizing payment or liquidation.

Section 5. Punishment of illicit enrichment

Article: 24

Any public servant or any other person who will have enriched himself or herself without being able to justify the honest and legal source of his or her property, shall be guilty of illicit enrichment.

He/she will be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of between 2 and 5 years and a fine ranging from twice to 10 times the value of the property the legal source of which, he or she is not able to justify.

The court of law will automatically deliver the verdict of the confiscation of the illicit property or revenue.

Section6: Punishment of laundering

Article: 25

Whoever will have committed the offence of laundering shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of between 2 and 5 years and a fine ranging from twice to 10 times the value of illicit profit.

I lie court of law will automatically deliver the verdict of the confiscation of the illicit property or revenue that was laundered.

Article: 26

Laundering is punished with a term of imprisonment of between 5 and 10 years and a fine ranging from -twice to 10 times the value of illicit profit given, if it was committed:

a) as a habit;

b) on the basis of professional authority;

c) in an organized gang.

Article: 27

When the offence resulting into the property and revenue on which the operation of laundering were based is punishable by a term of imprisonment longer than that provided for in articles 26 and 27 of this law, the sentence applicable for the laundering will be that provided for for that offence where it is pointed out that the offender was aware of the offence beforehand. And if this offence is accompanied by aggravating circumstances, only the sentence provided for aggravating circumstances known by the offender shall be applicable.

Chapter 3. COMMON PROVISIONS FOR THE PUNISHMENT OF CORRUPTION AND RELATED OFFENCES

Article: 28

An accomplice in offences provided for by this law shall be liable to the same sentences as the offender. The accomplice may be prosecuted even if no proceedings have been brought against the offender.

Article: 29

An accomplice is any person who:

a) knowingly, will have helped the author or the co-author in the preparation, complicity and commission of the offence;

b) anyone who, indirectly or directly, will have benefited from illicit profit knowing that the illicit profit results from the offence.

Article: 30

Notwithstanding other sentences provided for by the penal provisions applicable to offences provided for by this law, the court of law can deliver an additional verdict as follows:

a) the confiscation of the object or item which was used or meant to be used to commit the offence;

b) the confiscation of the product of the offence as well as the money or object which the author or co¬authors or accomplice have illicitly received. When the confiscated object has not been seized or cannot be substituted, the confiscation is arranged in money value.

Chapter 4. THE LIABILITY OF LEGAL ENTITIES

Article: 31

Legal entities, whether public or private, are liable for corruption and related offences provided for by this law, when they are committed by their representatives or by those who occupy leadership posts acting on behalf of these legal entities on the basis of :

a) power of representation;

b) power to take decisions;

c) power of supervision;

d) those who have been accomplices or those who have encouraged the authors of offences to commit them.

The liability of legal entities provided for in paragraph one of this article does not exclude individual penal prosecution of the representatives of the said legal entities or their accomplices.

Article: 32

Legal entities, whether public or private, that will be found guilty of offences provided for in this law will pay a fine of between live to ten times the value of illicit profit received or accepted, demanded, accorded or, promised.

Article: 33

Notwithstanding provisions of article 31 of this law, the court of law can, in case of legal entity liability, deliver an additional verdict of one or two of these penalties:

a) exclusion from public tenders for a duration not exceeding 2 years;

b) displaying or publicizing the court judgment by all possible means of communication.

Article: 34

In the legal proceedings against legal entities for offences provided for by this law, the legal representatives of these legal entities shall be given a notice of hearing and allowed to represent them.

Legal representatives of these legal entities cannot be prosecuted for offences whose liability is incumbent upon the legal entities whom they represent except in cases of individual liability.

Chapter 5. MEASURES TO FACILITATE THE COLLECTION OF EVIDENCE

Section 1. Evidence and protection of witnesses

Article: 35

In their investigations, the Judicial police officer, the public prosecutor or judge are duly authorized to demand liar banking, financial or commercial records and to seize them.

Professional secrets whether of banking nature or other professional secret, cannot constitute an obstacle to: investigation measures taken by the judicial police officer, the public prosecutor or the judge in their inquiries to get evidence.

Article: 36

In the legal proceedings and judgment of offences provided for by this law, the judge or any qualified authority handling the offences provided for by this law, must take all the necessary measures to ensure effective and appropriate protection for the following persons:

a) those who have supplied information concerning the offences provided for by this law or who collaborated in another way with authorities in charge of investigations or court proceedings;

b) witnesses who have made statements concerning the offences.

Article: 37

The court will reserve a bonus for whoever will have contributed to the denunciation of offences provided for by this law, without having participated in committing these offences. The bonus shall be as follows :

a) 1/10 of the value of the property confiscated from the author of the offence;

b) 20,000 RWF to 100,000 RWF that shall be paid by the guilty person

where the offence denounced could not lead to property confiscation.

Section 2. Mitigation measures

Article: 38

Whoever will have made a confession after the discovery of the offence or after the start of the investigation but before his or her file is transmitted to the court of law and whoever will plead guilty while supplying all the information on the offence committed, on those related offences concerning the identification of authors, co¬authors and accomplices, the nature, the value of gifts or of any other illicit profit received or the nature of other things demanded, received, accorded, promised, as well the information related to product of the offence, shall be liable to a penalty equivalent to one-half of the penalty which the court of law would have imposed on him/her, the author, co-author or accomplice of offences provided for by this law.

Article: 39

Whoever will have made a confession before any legal proceedings or before the affair is discovered and whoever will plead guilty while supplying information, on the offence committed and on those related offences, concerning the identification of authors, co-authors and accomplices, the nature, the value of gifts, of any other illicit profit received or the nature of other things demanded, received, accorded, promised, as well as the information related to product of the offence, shall be liable to a penalty equivalent to a quarter of the penalty which the court of law would have imposed on him/her, the author, the co-author or the accomplice of offences provided for by this law.

Article: 40

The mitigation measures provided for in articles 39 and 40 of this law is excluded when the offence committed relates to sexual acts of an unconsented nature.

Article: 41

The mitigation provided for by this law does not prevent the court from ordering the confiscation provided for by this law.

Chapter 6. FINAL PROVISIONS

Article: 42

Notwithstanding modifications made by this law, the provisions of the Penal Code, Book One, are applicable to offences provided for and punished by this law.

Article: 43

All previous legal provisions contrary to this law are hereby repealed.

Article: 44

This law comes into force on the date of its publication in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda. Kigali, on 07/08/2003

(In Chapter 2 of the Penal Code of Rwanda, which was released on August 18, 1977, it regulates the crime of the corruption from article 223 to article 227.)

Section 8.

De la corruption des fonctionnaires publics, des arbitres ou experts commis en justice

Article 223:

Tout magistrat, fonctionnaire, officier public ou toute autre personne chargée d’un service public, tout arbitre ou tout expert commis en justice, qui aura agréé des offres ou promesses, qui aura exigé ou accepté des dons ou présents pour faire un acte de sa fonction, de son emploi ou de sa mission, même juste mais non sujet à rétribution, ou pour faire un acte qui, en dehors de ses attributions personnelles, était ou aurait été facilité par sa fonction ou son service, sera puni d’un emprisonnement de six mois à cinq ans et d’une amende de cinq mille à trente mille francs, ou de l’une de ces peines seulement.

Il sera puni d’un emprisonnement d’un an à vingt ans et d’une amende de dix mille à cent mille francs ou de l’une de ces peines seulement s’il a exigé ou agréé des dons, des présents, des offres ou des promesses, soit pour faire dans l’exercice de ses fonctions, de son emploi ou de sa mission un acte injuste ou réprimé par la loi, soit pour s’abstenir de faire un acte qui rentre dans l’ordre de ses devoirs.

Article 224:

Sera puni d’un emprisonnement de trois mois à deux ans et d’une amende de cinquante mille francs au maximum ou de l’une de ces peines seulement, toute personne qui aura sollicité ou agréé des offres ou promesses, sollicité ou reçu des dons ou présents, pour obtenir, faire obtenir ou tenter de faire obtenir des décorations, distinctions ou récompenses, des places, fonctions ou emplois ou des faveurs accordés par l’autorité publique, des marchés, entreprises ou autres bénéfices résultant des contrats passés avec l’autorité publique ou avec une administration placée sous le contrôle de la puissance publique, ou , de façon générale, une décision favorable d’une telle autorité ou administration, et aura ainsi abusé d’une influence réelle ou supposée.

Si le coupable est une des personnes visées à l’article 223 et qu’il a abusé de l’influence réelle ou supposée que lui donne sa qualité, la peine sera un emprisonnement d’un an à dix ans et une amende de dix mille à cinquante mille francs.

Article 225:

Celui qui, pour obtenir, soit l’accomplissement ou l’abstention d’un acte, soit une des faveurs ou avantages prévus aux articles 223 et 224, aura usé de voies de fait ou de menaces, promesses, offres, dons ou présents envers le magistrat, fonctionnaire, officier public, agent chargé d’un service public, arbitre ou expert commis en justice, sera puni des mêmes peines que la personne corrompue, que la contrainte ou la corruption ait ou non produit son effet.

Article 226:

Le juge ou l’arbitre qui se sera décidé par corruption sera puni d’un emprisonnement de cinq à quinze ans.

Si, par l’effet de la corruption, il y a eu condamnation à une peine supérieure à quinze ans d’emprisonnement, cette peine, quelle qu’elle soit, sera appliqée au juge coupable de corruption.

Article 227:

Tout juge, arbitre ou fonctionnaire public qui se sera décidé par faveur pour une partie ou par inimitié contre elle, sera puni de cinq à dix ans d’emprisonnement et d’une amende de cinquante mille francs au maximum, ou de l’une de ces peines seulement.

Article 32

Every person shall respect public property. Any act intended to cause sabotage, vandalism, corruption, embezzlement, squandering or any tampering with public property shall be punishable by law.

CHAPTER SEVEN- THE OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN

Article 182

The Office of the Ombudsman shall be an independent public institution. Its responsibilities shall include the following:

1 acting as a link between the citizen and public and private institutions ;

2 preventing and fighting against injustice, corruption and other related offences in public and private administration;

3 receiving and examining, in the aforementioned context, complaints from individuals and independent associations against the acts of public officials or organs, and private institutions and to mobilise these officials and institutions in order to find solutions to such complaints if they are well founded.

The Office shall not involve itself in the investigation or adjudication relating to matters which are subjudice except that it may submit to the courts or the prosecution service the complaints which it has received, in which case those organs are required to respond to the office.

4 receiving the faithful declaration of assets of the President of the Republic, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, the President of the Supreme Court, the Prime Minister and other members of the Cabinet upon taking up and on leaving office.

The Office of Ombudsman shall submit each year its program and activity report to the President of the Republic and to Parliament and submit copies thereof to other State organs determined by law. The law shall determine the organization and functioning of the Office.

Police Background Check Procedures

Who can apply?

• All applications must be submitted by the applicant themselves. Third parties cannot apply on behalf of the applicant

Where?

• Applicants can apply in Rwanda otherwise they can apply through the Rwanda High Commission in London/ or their nearest local embassy

What must the applicant supply?

• A letter of request for criminal record clearance certificate should be addressed to the Prosecutor General, National Public Prosecution Authority in Kigali-Rwanda through Rwanda
High Commission in London-UK.
• Two currentpassport photos.
• Duly completed form(attached)
• Proof of payment for £50 into Rwanda High Commission bank account( full details are on website; http://www.rwandahc.org/consular-and-visa-services/policeclearance-certificate/
• Proof of address in the UK/Ireland (copy of utility bill or bank statement)
• Copy of valid passport.
• Proof of immigration legal status in the UK/Ireland for non-UK citizens.

What are the costs / turnaround times?

• The certificate costs £50 and may take up to ten working days.

Contact details

The application form can be downloaded from
http://www.rwandahc.org/consular-andvisa-services/police-clearance-certificate/
Consular Section
Rwanda High Commission
120-122 Seymour Place
London
W1H 1NR
Switch Board: +44 20 7224 9832
Website: www.rwandahc.org

Travel Risk

Security

The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The purpose of this Travel Advice is to provide up-to-date information to enable you to make well-informed decisions.

Be vigilant and avoid large crowds. In recent years, a number of grenade attacks have taken place throughout the country, particularly in Kigali and the Southern Province. The attacks usually occur at nightfall and take place at busy locations such as bus stations and markets. On September 13 and 14, 2013, grenades exploded in the Kicukiro market in Kigali, resulting in at least two deaths and many injuries. Similar incidents took place in July 2013 at Nyabugogo market in Kigali and in March 2013 in Kimironko.

Regions bordering the DRC

Be extremely vigilant in the areas along the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). There are several active armed rebel groups in eastern DRC, and the security situation can deteriorate very suddenly. Incursions into Rwanda by these groups have occurred, and artillery fire landed on Rwandan territory in 2013. The Rwanda-DRC border can be closed without notice.

Crime

The level of crime is relatively low in Rwanda. However, petty theft from cars and hotel rooms occurs, and pickpockets are active in crowded places. House break-ins have occurred in Kigali. Remain alert to your surroundings and ensure that your personal belongings and vehicles are secure. Do not show signs of affluence and do not venture out alone or travel outside major cities after dark.

Demonstrations

Demonstrations occur and have the potential to suddenly turn violent. They can lead to significant disruptions to traffic and public transportation. Avoid all demonstrations and large gatherings, follow the advice of local authorities and monitor local media.

Road travel

In general, the main roads in Kigali and linking Kigali to other cities are relatively well maintained; however, dirt roads, particularly the Gisenyi-Kibuye-Cyangugu road, are in poor condition. Excessive speed, careless driving, the lack of basic safety equipment on many vehicles, the presence of pedestrians, cyclists and livestock on the roads, and the lack of streetlights pose hazards. Some roads may be difficult or impossible to access during the rainy season. Avoid travel after dark, particularly in rural areas. Police checkpoints are frequent.

The use of a mobile telephone while driving is illegal, unless it is fitted with a hands-free device.

Third-party insurance is required to cover damages if you are involved in an accident resulting in injuries even if you are not found to be at fault. If you are suspected of causing an accident, your driver’s licence can be confiscated during the investigation. If the accident results in death, you may be subject to a jail sentence.

Public Transportation

Shared taxis (minivans), the most common form of public transportation, can be dangerous due to overloading and reckless driving. Use licensed auto taxis, which are orange-striped. Confirm the fare with the driver before departing.

Be cautious when using motorbike taxis, as they are unsafe. Do not use them at night.

See Transportation Safety in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.

Adventure tourism

No recent incidents have been reported at the Parc National des Volcans and the Nyungwe Forest National Park. Park permits must be purchased from Rwanda’s Office of Tourism and National Parks. Within the parks, be accompanied by an official guide and only use established trails.

General safety information

Tourist facilities are adequate in Kigali and other major towns, but are limited in remote areas. In remote areas, access to electricity is limited. During the dry season, there may be water shortages in some areas of the country and in some parts of Kigali.

Emergency services

Dial 912 for ambulance services; note that they are insufficiently equipped. Dial 112 for police. Police officers, especially those on the street, may not speak English or French.

In the event of a traffic accident: in Kigali, dial 113 for police; elsewhere, go directly to the nearest police station.

Annual Cases

Budget Autonomy Yes
Annual Budget of the Agency Rwf 1,823,921,897 for fiscal year 2013-2014 (£ 1,671,789 for £=1,091 Rwf on 18/11/2014)
Per Capital Expenditure $ (US) 0.22
Expeniture as % of the GDP 0.22 %
Are employees protected by law from recrimination or other negative consequences when reporting corruption (i.e. whistle-blowing)? Yes
Does your country have freedom of information legislation? Yes
Does your country have conflict of interest legislation? Yes
Does your country have a financial disclosure system to help prevent conflicts of interest? Yes
Who appoints the head of your agency? The Cabinet proposes the candidates to the Senate which elects the Ombudsman and his/ her two Deputies.
Who has the authority to remove the head of the ACA? Reasons to terminate office for the Ombudsman and his/her deputies: Resignation, expiration of first/two terms office, illness, death or failure to discharge the duties. In case of the Ombudsman and his/her Deputies fail to discharge his/her duties, the same procedure to appoint him/her is applicable (Q29).
Is there any term limit for the head of the ACA? Yes , 5 Year
Does your agency measure performance? Yes
Number of investigations launched
Number of investigations completed
Ratio of number of investigations/staff
Full access to Government Yes

Address Format

RECIPIENT
[BUILDING]
[SUBBUILDING]
[HOUSE_NUMBER] STREET_NAME
LOCALITY
RWANDA

Sample

M. John Simon
12 Avenue Paul VI
Kigali
RWANDA

Summary

Rwanda GDP Last Previous Highest Lowest Unit
GDP 7.45 7.13 7.45 0.12 USD Billion
GDP Growth Rate 5.90 1.06 13.40 -5.10 percent
GDP Annual Growth Rate 6.20 8.00 13.40 2.20 percent
GDP per capita 387.66 381.00 387.66 140.25 USD
GDP per capita PPP 1405.52 1381.36 1405.52 508.51 USD
Gross Fixed Capital Formation 1033.00 1022.00 1033.00 128.00 Billion RWF
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