LIBYA BACKGROUND CHECK

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Data Protection

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(issued on 12 January 2005 )

Article 2 – Money laundering

2. Property shall be considered illegal if it was obtained from a crime, including the crimes described in the International Agreement to Combat Organized Crime and the Protocol attached thereto, the International Agreement to Combat Corruption, or other international agreements to which Libya is a party.

(Adopted on: 11 Dec 1969 )

Preamble

The Revolutionary Command Council, in the name of the Arab people in Libya, who pledged to restore their freedom, enjoy the wealth of their land, live in a society in which every loyal citizen has the right to prosperity and well-being, who are determined to break the restraints which impede their growth and their development, who will stand with their brothers from all parts of the Arab Nation in the struggle for the restoration of every inch of Arab land desecrated by imperialism and for the elimination of all obstacles which prevent Arab unity from the Gulf to the Ocean. In the name of the Libyan people who believe that peace cannot be achieved without justice, who are conscious of the importance of strengthening the ties which unite them with all the people of the world who are struggling against imperialism; who understand fully that the alliance of reaction and imperialism is responsible for their underdevelopment despite the abundance of their natural resources, and for the corruption which spread through the governmental apparatus; who are conscious of their responsibility in the establishment of a national, democratic, progressive, and unitary government.

Article 62

The President and the Vice-President may be removed from office by impeachment for treason, bribery and other felonies, violation of the Constitution or gross misconduct.

Article 71

The Chief Justice and Associates Justices of the Supreme Court and the judges of subordinate courts of record shall hold office during good behavior. They may be removed upon impeachment and conviction by the Legislature based on proved misconduct, gross breach of duty, inability to perform the functions of their office, or conviction in a court of law for treason, bribery or other infamous crimes.

Article 90

a. No person, whether elected or appointed to any public office, shall engage in any other activity which shall be against public policy, or constitute conflict of interest.

b. No person holding office shall demand and receive any other perquisites, emoluments or benefits, directly or indirectly, on account of any duty required by Government.

c. The Legislature shall, in pursuance of the above provision, prescribe a Code of Conduct for all public officials and employees, stipulating the acts which constitute conflict of interest or are against public policy, and the penalties for violation thereof.

Risk

Sovereign risk

The sovereign risk rating remains at CCC. However, despite low public debt as a proportion of GDP, falling oil export income, coupled with lower oil prices and the deepening political crisis, has raised payment risk in 2015‘16. Payment problems are likely to arise in the short term owing to the poor performance of the oil sector.

Banking sector risk

Banking sector risk suffered a downgrade from CCC to CC in March. Structural imbalances, weak institutional capacity and a high non-performing loans ratio underpin the low rating. The planned transition to an Islamic banking system is under way but is being mismanaged, which is weighing on profits. Nevertheless, the Libyan banks are highly liquid, owing to weak lending to the private sector and a low loan/deposit ratio.

Political risk

Political stability will be undermined by the proliferation of militias, foreign military intervention and the lack of political will among rival Libyan factions to reach a political settlement. The conflict is expected to deepen throughout most of the forecast period, owing to the large number of players involved and the emergence of Islamic State, an extreme jihadi group, in the east.

Economic structure risk

The economic structure risk rating has been downgraded, given Libya’s exposure to volatile oil market conditions. Heavy reliance on oil revenue poses the greatest risk to real GDP growth over the forecast period. The promotion of the private sector is hampered by poor access to cheap bank credit and the concentration of the workforce in the public sector.

Travel Risk

Security

The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The Government of Canada takes the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provides credible and timely information in its Travel Advice. In the event of a crisis situation that requires evacuation, the Government of Canada’s policy is to provide safe transportation to the closest safe location. The Government of Canada will assist you in leaving a country or a region as a last resort, when all means of commercial or personal transportation have been exhausted. This service is provided on a cost-recovery basis. Onward travel is at your personal expense. Situations vary from one location to another, and there may be constraints on government resources that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide assistance, particularly in countries or regions where the potential for violent conflict or political instability is high.

Terrorism

There is a high risk of terrorism in all of Libya, and attacks can occur at any time throughout the country. Extremist groups have specifically threatened Westerners and Western interests in Libya, and have carried out attacks against these targets. Targets of attacks have included foreign officials, diplomats, aid workers, tourists, teachers, other private-sector workers and embassies. Commercial and public areas known to be frequented by foreigners, such as hotels, schools, hospitals, office buildings, air and sea ports, public events, public transportation, markets and shopping areas, have also been targeted.

Ansar al-Sharia, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), al-Qaeda and other extremist groups active in Libya have specifically targeted foreigners in past attacks.

The situation in Benghazi is particularly unstable and volatile. Attacks against foreign interests and foreigners occur regularly.

Be extremely vigilant and aware of your surroundings at all times.

Civil unrest and violent conflict

The political situation is extremely fragile. The capital has been seized by a coalition of armed groups, and the democratically elected government has been driven into exile in Tobruk, in the east of the country. Formal state security structures have largely collapsed.

Armed clashes are ongoing throughout the country, and violence spread from eastern Libya to the capital in June 2014. Fighting between armed groups supporting the elected government in Tobruk and the opposition government in Tripoli occurs daily. Hundreds of people have been killed, thousands injured and hundreds of thousands displaced by the fighting.

Demonstrations and protests are a regular occurrence across Libya and have resulted in violence and fatalities. Follow the security situation closely through local media reports, take appropriate steps to increase your personal security and limit your movements to daylight hours. Avoid public gatherings and all demonstrations, as they may become violent without warning.

Kidnapping

There is a high threat of kidnapping in Libya. Foreigners are common targets. Maintain a high level of vigilance at all times.

Border areas

You may face heightened risks at the border areas with Niger, Chad, Sudan, Tunisia and Algeria due to the presence of armed groups, the threat of banditry and an extreme kidnapping risk. Borders may close on short notice, including in particular the borders with Egypt and Tunisia.

Travel to the interior and to border areas without an officially sanctioned guide or specific permission from the Libyan authorities is forbidden, with the exception of the official land border crossings to Egypt and Tunisia.

Crime

The crime rate is very high in Libya, where weapons are easily available and government forces do not have control of the country. Carjackings and armed robberies are common occurrences.

Landmines

The risk of encountering unexploded ordnance and indiscriminately laid landmines is high in all areas where has fighting occurred. Exercise caution in these areas.

Transportation

The Tripoli International Airport has been closed since it was destroyed in inter-factional in July 2014. Benghazi airport has been closed since early 2014, having likewise sustained damage due to heavy fighting in the vicinity. Currently, only Mitiga (in Tripoli), Misrata, Labraq (in Baida) and Tobruk airports offer international flights. Flights are frequently cancelled; tickets must be obtained in advance, and paid for in cash on site.

Airports have been frequently targeted for rocket, artillery and terrorist attack. Check the status of your flight prior to travelling to the airport and avoid travelling after dark.

The road system is extensive, but many roads in the south are unpaved and there are only sand tracks in the desert. Avoid all road travel in the southeast, due to the possibility of landmines, kidnapping, banditry and terrorism. Traffic is heavy on the main east-west coastal highway, between Tripoli and the Tunisian border. Travel on the coastal highway in the east of the country is dangerous, due to ongoing inter-factional fighting and the risk of kidnapping by extremist groups.

The rate of vehicle accidents is high. Poor driving skills, excessive speeds and traffic violations pose risks. Rental cars are available but expensive.

In the event of an accident, remain calm and contact the local police. Local authorities may detain motorists involved in an accident until the court case is settled, if the accident resulted in loss of life or heavy damage.

There have been recent incidents of vehicle ambush and carjacking resulting in injuries.

Be cautious when using taxis. Negotiate fares prior to departure. Taxi drivers have been complicit in robberies targeting their passengers.

See Transportation Safety in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.

General Security Information

Since the beginning of the Libyan revolution in February 2011, falling rounds from celebratory gunfire have caused fatalities and injuries. Despite a reduction in these types of incidents, you should remain indoors in the event of any celebratory gunfire.

Summary

Libya GDP Last Previous Highest Lowest Unit
GDP 75.46 81.87 93.17 19.84 USD Billion
GDP Annual Growth Rate -12.06 104.37 104.37 -52.50 percent
GDP Constant Prices 79952.60 56355.10 79952.60 20146.30 LYD Million
GDP per capita 6228.97 6925.41 12705.54 3415.28 USD
GDP per capita PPP 20715.93 23032.10 30261.14 11358.33 USD
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