ESTONIA BACKGROUND CHECK

General Information

GDP USD25.9bn (World ranking 104, World Bank 2014)
Population 1.31 million (World ranking 154, World Bank 2014)
Form of state Parliamentary Republic
Head of government Taavi ROIVAS
Next elections 2016, presidential

CURRENT LOCAL TIME

FILL TO DOWNLOAD SAMPLE REPORT

*Note: This is just a sample report. It may change according to your requirements and country

PRODUCTS IN ESTONIA

Data Protection

The Data Protection Inspectorate defends your constitutional rights:

1) right to obtain information about the activities of public authorities;
2) right to inviolability of private and family life in the use of personal data;
3) right to access data gathered in regard to yourself.

To do that, we are empowered by:

a) the Personal Data Protection Act:

obligations of processors of personal data;
everyone’s rights with respect to their data;

b) the Public Information Act:

everyone’s right to obtain public information;
adherence to restrictions on access;
control over public sector databases;;

c) the Electronic Communications Act:

protection from unwanted electronic direct marketing (spam, SMS advertising, etc.);

d) international legislation:

joint supervision over cross-border databases and other international cooperation.

To defend your rights, we act as:

1. a commissioner (ombudsman) and preliminary court;
2. an auditor and a licencor;
3. an educator and consultant;
4. a designer of legal practices;
5. a policy adviser;
6. a law enforcement agency.

Director-General of the Data Protection Inspectorate

The Director-General is appointed for a period of 5 years by the Government on the proposal of the Minister of Justice, taking into consideration the opinion of the Constitutional Committee of the Riigikogu (Parliament). The candidate is selected for the nomination in open competition as all higher civil servants.

The Director-General has right to make legally binding decisions and to take law enforcement measures. He is entitled to delegate his powers to other officers of the Inspectorate. He has the right to report directly to the Constitutional Committee of the Riigikogu and to the Chancellor of Justice.
Dr. Viljar Peep was nominated to the post of Director General in 2008 and again in 2013.

The first Personal Data Protection Act entered into force in Estonia in 1996.
The Data Protection Inspectorate was founded in 1999.
We have been the supervising agency of the Public Information Act since 2001.
The current Personal Data Protection Act entered into force in 2008.

 

Our goal is to help design a society that values the right of the individual to privacy and the transparency of activities of the state.
As a recognised expert in this field, we strike a fair balance between the fundamental rights of individuals and public and business interests.

(Passed on 25 January 1995, entered into force on 1 January 1996)

Chapter 4 Duties of Service

75. Obligation to declare economic interest An official is required to submit to a person or administrative agency with employment authority a declaration of his or her economic interests pursuant to the procedure and under the conditions provided for in the Anti-corruption Act.

76. Restrictions on conclusion of transaction

(1) A public servant is prohibited from:

1) acquiring assets which are entrusted to him or her for concluding a transaction and belong to a person with whom he or she is in employment or service relationship;

2) concluding, as a person entitled to represent a state agency in transactions, transactions with the state through the administrative agency concerned, or concluding, as a person entitled to represent a local government agency in transactions, transactions with a local government through the administrative agency concerned;

3)concluding, as a representative of the state or a local government, property transactions with legal persons specified in subsection 19 (2) of the Anti-corruption Act;

4)concluding, as a representative of the state or a local government, property transactions with a non-profit association or political party of which he or she is a member;

5)concluding, as a representative of the state or a local government, property transactions with an employer, commercial undertaking, non-profit association or political party, over the activities of which he or she exercises supervision;

6)concluding, as a representative of the state or a local government, property transactions with his or her close relatives, close relatives by marriage, or himself or herself.

(Entered into force on 28 February 1999)

Chapter 1 General provisions

§ 1. Scope of application of Act

This Act provides the legal bases for the prevention of corruption and prosecution of officials involved in corruption.

§ 2. Means of corruption prevention

The means to prevent corruption are the following:

1) declaration of the economic interests of officials and persons listed in § 4 of this Act and disclosure of declarations of economic interests in the cases prescribed by law;

2) restriction on employment and activities specified in Chapter 3 of this Act;

3) procedural restrictions specified in Chapter 4 of this Act.

§ 3. Office and official position

(1) For the purposes of this Act, an office is a place of employment or service to which a person has been elected, appointed, or hired under an employment contract.

(2) Official position is the competence of an official arising from the office to adopt decisions binding to other persons, perform acts, participate in making decisions concerning privatisation, transfer or grant of use of municipal property and the obligation to fulfil his or her official duties honestly and lawfully.

§ 4. Official

(1) Pursuant to this Act, an official is a state or local government official who has an official position provided for in subsection 3 (2), or a non-staff public servant performing his or her duties.

(2) For the purposes of this Act, the following are also deemed to be officials:

1) members of the Riigikogu

2) the President of the Republic;

3) members of the Government of the Republic;

4) the Chief Justice and justices of the Supreme Court;

5) the Chairman and members of the Board of the Bank of Estonia, the President of the Bank of Estonia;

6) the Commander (Commander-in-Chief) of the Defence Forces;

7) the Auditor General and chief auditors of the State Audit Office;

8) the Legal Chancellor;

9) heads of foreign missions of Estonia;

10) the State Secretary;

11) county governors;

12) the Chief Public Prosecutor and prosecutors;

13) judges of administrative, county, city and circuit courts;

14) chairmen and members of rural municipality and city councils;

15) rural municipality mayors and city mayors, members of rural municipality and city governments;

16) rural municipality district elders and city district elders, members of administrative councils of rural municipality districts and city districts;

17) notaries;

18) police officers;

19) bailiffs, prison officers and probation officers;

20) officers of the Defence Forces, Defence Forces officials, border guard officials, rescue service officials, and officials of the National Defence League;

21) the Commander of the National Defence League and members of the central management and central audit committee of the National Defence League, the Commander of the General Staff and commanders of structural units of the National Defence League, chiefs of units and members of the management and audit committees of the National Defence League;

22) members of the management boards and supervisory boards of companies with state participation;

23) members of the management boards and supervisory boards of companies with local government participation;

24) members of the management boards and supervisory boards of companies with the participation of a legal person in public law;

25) members of the management boards and supervisory boards of legal persons in public law, the President of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, rectors of universities in public law, the Chairman of the Estonian Bar Association;

26) heads of state agencies administered by government agencies;

(07.06.2001 entered into force 03.07.2001 – RT I 2001, 58, 357)

27) trustees in bankruptcy, natural persons who are performing administrative functions in public law assigned to them pursuant to law or who are granted authority to exercise executive power pursuant to law and the members of directing bodies of legal persons in private law which perform the above-mentioned functions or exercise executive power;

28) managers and members of management boards and supervisory boards of foundations in private law founded by the state, a local government or a legal person in public law.

(3) For the purposes of this Act, heads of rural municipality or city government administrative agencies and heads of agencies administered by administrative agencies are considered to be officials if so decided by the rural municipality or city council.

(4) For the purposes of this Act, members of management boards of non-profit associations are considered to be officials if the non-profit association is founded by or with the participation of the state, a local government or a legal person in public law or if so provided for in the Act regulating the activities of the non-profit association or in the articles of association or if a corresponding resolution is adopted by a competent directing body of the non-profit association.

§ 5. Definition of act of corruption, relationship involving risk of corruption and income derived from corrupt practices

(1) An act of corruption is the use of official position for self-serving purposes by an official who makes undue or unlawful decisions or performs such acts, or fails to make lawful decisions or perform such acts.

(2) A relationship involving the risk of corruption is a relationship of an official with another person which is created or may be created if the official violates of the restrictions on employment and activities or the procedural restrictions provided for in Chapters 3 or 4 of this Act.

(3) Income derived from corrupt practices is economic or other benefit which an official directly or indirectly receives from another person for committing an act of corruption or on the condition that an act of corruption will be committed in the future:

1) as a monetary payment;

2) as a gift;

3) as remuneration in kind, a useful favour or advantage;

4) by way of transfer without charge, or sale below the market price of shares, share certificates and other securities to him or her;

5) by way of accepting an offer to become a co-owner of an immovable, a partner or shareholder of a public limited company or other company;

6) as economic or other benefit not set out in clauses 1) – 5) of this subsection.

§ 6. Prohibition on relationships involving risk of corruption

(1) Officials are prohibited from committing acts of corruption, entering into relationships involving risk of corruption with natural or legal persons and from receiving income derived from corrupt practices.

(2) The head of an agency is required, as an employer, to organise work in a manner where the legality of the officials’ activities and the restrictions on employment and activities and procedural restrictions established for officials are monitored.

(3) Officials who have relationships involving the risk of corruption shall inform the head of the agency or a body with election authority thereof and apply for the right to make the corresponding decisions or conclude the corresponding transactions to be granted to another official.

Chapter 2 Declaration of Economic Interests

§ 7. Purpose of declaration of economic interests

The purpose of a declaration of economic interests is to get an overview of the economic interests of an official which may promote or cause a conflict of private and public interests, the commitment of an act of corruption or the creation of a relationship involving the risk of corruption.

§ 8. Definition of declaration of economic interests

A declaration of economic interests (hereinafter declaration) is a document in which an official declares information concerning his or her property, proprietary obligations and other circumstances which allow to determine the economic interests and financial situation of the official.

§ 9. Content of declaration

(1) A declaration shall contain the following information concerning the person submitting the declaration:

1) immovable property (including structures and parts thereof until entry in the land register) (use, location, land registry jurisdiction and registered immovable property number);

2) vehicles entered in the state register (type of vehicle, make, and year of production);

3) the holding of shares, other securities (share certificates in investment funds, bonds, convertible bonds, privatisation vouchers, certificates proving the right or obligation of purchase or sale (option), etc.), and shares (issuer, class, amount, the nominal value of one unit, and the total value of each article in the case of shares and convertible bonds);

4) debts and contracts of suretyship (creditor and amount of debt) to banks and other persons if the amount of debt exceeds six months’ salary or 50 000 kroons a year, if salary is not paid in the corresponding office;

5) other proprietary obligations, if the amount of debt or the possible debt-claim (leasings, contracts of suretyship, pledges, mortgages, real encumbrances, etc.) exceeds six months’ salary or 50 000 kroons a year, if a salary is not paid in the corresponding office;

6) other income (salary and additional remuneration if the official does not receive a salary for the office, including remuneration received from supervisory boards, interest, pensions, and other remuneration and sources of income);

7) bank accounts (bank, type of account and number of accounts);

8) taxable income (shall be completed on the basis of a natural person income tax return of the preceding year submitted to the Tax Board);

9) dividend income (shall be completed on the basis of a natural person income tax return of the preceding year submitted to the Tax Board).

§ 10. Declaration of property in common or joint ownership

(1) The things, rights and obligations in common or joint ownership (joint property of spouses and other joint ownership provided by law) listed in § 9 of this Act shall be declared and the share of the official in the common ownership and the estimated share in joint ownership shall be indicated; a corresponding notation shall be made concerning the property which belongs to the spouse of the official.

(2) If an official has entered into a marital property contract, he or she shall submit the copy of the marital property contract entered in the marital property register to a depositary of declarations within one month as of entry into the contract or amendment thereof. Upon disclosure of a declaration, the content of the marital property contract shall not be disclosed.

§ 11. Declaration form

(1) A declaration shall be submitted on the form set out in Annex 1 to this Act. For the submission of a declaration, a depositary of declarations shall give or send the form to the person submitting the declaration at least one month before the expiry of the term for the submission of declarations. A depositary of declarations shall make an entry in the register maintained by the depositary and shall indicate the person who submitted the declaration, the date of submission of the declaration and the number of the declaration.

(2) If the person who is required to submit a declaration has not received the declaration form by the time specified in subsection (1) of this section, he or she shall, in order to receive the declaration, address a depositary of declarations at a time which enables the timely submission of the declaration.

§ 12. Depositary of declarations

(1) A depositary of declarations is an official appointed by the head of an agency or a duly authorised body. In the cases provided for in this Act, a depositary of declarations is a committee or supervisory board designated therefor.

(2) A depositary of declarations organises the timely collection of declarations, the verification and depositing thereof according to the requirements and, in the cases provided by law, publication of declarations.

(3) Monitoring compliance with restrictions on employment and activities and procedural restrictions provided by law may be assigned to a depositary of declarations.

(4) A depositary of declarations is required to determine the reasons for a failure to submit a declaration on time or failure to submit a declaration at all.

(5) A depositary of declarations has the right to make proposals concerning disciplinary proceedings to be brought against officials and to submit documentation concerning violations revealed in the course of monitoring to the police.

(6) Officials who, pursuant to this Act, shall submit a declaration are required to provide explanations to the depositary of declarations concerning the contents of the declaration and a failure to submit the declaration on time or failure to submit the declaration at all.

(7) Declarations together with accompanying documents shall be deposited such that nobody except the depositary of declarations, the head of the agency, the person who submitted the declaration, investigative bodies and courts has access thereto.

(8) The head of the agency shall be responsible for creating the working conditions necessary for the depositary of declarations. The work of an official, committee or supervisory board appointed as a depositary of declarations may be compensated for.

(9) Declarations of officials specified in § 4 of this Act shall be deposited in the office of a depositary of declarations as of the submission thereof until the destruction or transfer of the declarations to the archives. Declarations of officials specified in subsection 4 (1) of this Act shall be destroyed after five years or be granted archival value pursuant to the procedure provided for in the Archives Act (RT I 1998, 36/37, 552; 1999, 16, 271; 2000, 92, 597). Declarations of officials specified in subsection 4 (2) of this Act and accompanying documents related to the collection, depositing and verification of the declarations shall be given to a public archives after five years pursuant to the procedure provided for in the Archives Act.

§ 13. Term for submission of declaration

(1) A declaration shall be submitted every year one month after expiry of the term for submission of income tax returns or within one month after the date of commencement of work in an office, unless otherwise provided by this Act.

(2) If, after the submission of a declaration during the term specified in subsection (1) of this section, the composition of the property or the structure thereof declared by the official changes significantly, the official shall submit a new declaration within one month after the change occurs. A change in the financial situation is deemed to be significant if it involves a change to the extent of at least 30 per cent or over 100 000 kroons.

(3) Officials specified in subsection 4 (2) of this Act, with the exception of persons specified in clauses (2) 1) and 2), shall submit a declaration to the former depositary of declarations within two years after leaving their posts.

§ 14. Submission of declaration

(1) The head of an agency shall determine, on the basis of this Act, the categories of officials who shall submit declarations. An official shall submit a declaration to the depositary of declarations appointed by the head of the agency or, in the absence thereof, to the head of the agency.

(2) Members of the Riigikogu, the President of the Republic, members of the Government of the Republic, the Chairman and justices of the Supreme Court, the Chairman and members of the Board of the Bank of Estonia, the President of the Bank of Estonia, the Commander and Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Forces, the Auditor General and chief auditors of the State Audit Office, the Legal Chancellor, ambassadors, the Chief Public Prosecutor and public prosecutors, the chairmen of circuit courts, the chairmen of administrative, county and city courts, county governors, the State Secretary, the President of the Estonian Academy of Sciences and rectors of universities in public law shall submit declarations to the committee designated by the Riigikogu.

(3) The chancellors of ministries shall submit declarations to the State Secretary.

(4) Chairmen of rural municipality and city councils, rural municipality mayors and city mayors, rural municipality district and city district elders shall submit declarations to the Minister of Internal Affairs.

(5) Members of local government councils, officials of local governments and non-staff public servants performing the duties of such officials, heads of rural municipality or city government administrative agencies and heads of agencies administered by such administrative agencies and members of management boards and supervisory boards of companies with local government participation shall submit declarations to the committee appointed by the council.

(6) Judges of administrative, county and city courts, judges of circuit courts, senior prosecutors, notaries, the Chairman of the Estonian Bar Association, bailiffs and directors of prisons shall submit declarations to the Minister of Justice.

(7) Members of the management board or supervisory board of a company with state participation shall submit declarations to the minister who directs the ministry which exercises the state shareholder rights in the company, unless otherwise provided by law.

(8) Members of the management board (directing body) of a legal person in public law shall submit declarations to the supervisory board of the same person in public law. Members of the supervisory board of a legal person in public law shall submit declarations to the committee appointed by the Riigikogu unless otherwise provided by law.

(9) Members of the management board and supervisory board of a company with the participation of a legal person in public law and the manager and members of the management board and supervisory board of a foundation founded by a legal person in public law shall submit declarations to the head of the legal person in public law.

(10) A trustee in bankruptcy shall submit the declaration to the chairman of the court which appointed the trustee in bankruptcy. Other members of directing bodies of legal persons in private law and natural persons who are performing administrative functions in public law assigned to them pursuant to law or who are granted authority to exercise executive power pursuant to law shall submit declarations to the state agency which exercises supervision over their activities.

(11) Members of the supervisory board of a non-profit association specified in subsection 4 (4) of this Act shall submit declarations to the audit committee of the non-profit association.

(12) If an agency operates in the area of government of a ministry, the head of the agency shall submit a declaration pursuant to the procedure established by the minister. The depositary of declarations of the head of an agency shall not be an official subordinate to the head of the agency.

(13) Depositaries of declarations of economic interest of the categories of officials listed in this section (heads of agencies, committees and officials) are required to inform the committee of the Riigikogu specified in subsection 14 (2) of this Act of the figures of the declarations within two months as of the submission of declarations to a depositary of declarations.

(14) If, pursuant to this Act, several depositaries of declarations are appointed with respect to an official, the official shall submit a declaration to the depositary of declarations of his or her principal place of employment and a copy thereof to the other depositary of declarations.

§ 15. Disclosure of information given in declaration

(1) Everyone has the right to disclose the information given in his or her declaration.

(2) The information given in the declarations of members of the Riigikogu, the President of the Republic, members of the Government of the Republic, the Chairman and members of the Board of the Bank of Estonia, the President of the Bank of Estonia, the Commander and Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Forces, the Auditor General, the Legal Chancellor, ambassadors, the Chief Public Prosecutor, the Chairman and justices of the Supreme Court, the State Secretary, the chairmen and members of circuit courts, the chairmen and judges of administrative, county and city courts, secretaries general of ministries, county governors, chairmen of rural municipality and city councils, heads of rural municipality and city governments shall be disclosed in the Riigi Teataja Lisa.

(3) Declarations of members of local government councils and members of city governments and rural municipality governments shall be disclosed in a publication designated by the city council or rural municipality council. The local government council shall decide the disclosure of the declarations of other local government officials and determine the procedure for disclosure.

(4) An agency or official to whom a declaration has been submitted, or a committee designated to be the depositary of declarations shall submit the information given in the declaration for disclosure.

(5) A declaration to be disclosed shall be published without the personal identification code, address and data concerning close relatives and close relatives by marriage and without indicating the income specified in clauses 9 (1) 6), 8) and 9) of this Act

(6) Information contained in a declaration not subject to disclosure shall not be disclosed.

§ 16. Verification of declaration

(1) A depositary of declarations shall examine declarations submitted to him or her. A depositary of declarations has the right to verify the accuracy of information in a declaration and an obligation to do so if an official is suspected of corruption.

(2) A depositary of declarations has the right to make enquiries and to verify whether the declaration of an official has been changed during the period following the submission of the declaration.

(3) A depositary of declarations shall prepare an audit report concerning each verification specified in subsection (1) of this section and the audit report shall be communicated to the head of the agency and the official the accuracy of whose declaration was verified.

(4) In the case of a suspicion of corruption, a depositary of declarations and persons authorised for verification have the right to verify the following information concerning an official specified in § 4 of this Act:

1) the income tax return submitted to the Tax Board;

2) data concerning the official which is deposited in registers and databases maintained by the state and local governments;

3) data which is necessary for the verification of the declaration and is deposited in credit institutions.

(5) If, as a result of verification of a declaration of an official, a material violation of this Act, receiving income derived from corrupt practices or a relationship involving risk of corruption is proved, the verification documents shall be forwarded to an investigative body.

(6) Everyone who has information that an official specified in § 4 of this Act has failed to declare his or her economic interests and financial situation honestly and accurately may contest the declaration by submitting a reasoned application and request that the suspicions be verified by the direct depositary of declarations of the official or a committee of the Riigikogu. Verification of compliance with restrictions on employment and activities and procedural restrictions may be applied for as well. The recipient of an application is required to verify the declaration or suspicions of corruption on the basis of the application within one month as of the date of receipt of the application. The applicant shall be informed of the results of verification. If the reasons presented in an application prove to be even partly right, the declaration of the official together with proof shall be published in the media.

(7) All depositaries of declarations of economic interests are required to report to the head of the agency who appointed them or to authorised bodies and, at the request of the Riigikogu committee, to the Riigikogu committee on the performance of the duties imposed on them by this Act.

§ 17. (Repealed – 07.06.2001 entered into force 03.07.2001 – RT I 2001, 58, 357)

§ 18. Failure to submit declaration

(1) Failure to submit a declaration within the term provided for in § 13 of this Act without good reason shall bring about liability pursuant to the procedure provided by law Illness of the person who is required to submit a declaration or other circumstances independent of such person which prevent him or her from submitting the declaration within the term are deemed to be good reasons.

(2) Failure of an official to submit a declaration by the due date constitutes a violation of duties of employment or a breach of duties and an act which discredits the administrative agency which shall bring about disciplinary or administrative liability provided by law.

(3) If an official specified in subsection 15 (2) or (3) of this Act fails to submit a declaration by the due date, the chairman of the Riigikogu, the corresponding minister, head of an agency or chairman of the local government council shall publish a corresponding official notice in the Riigi Teataja Lisa within one month after the offence became known.

Chapter 3 Restrictions on Employment and Activities

§ 19. Definition of restriction on employment and activities

(1) For the purposes of this Act, a restriction on employment and activities means a restriction to operate as an undertaking, hold a second job or work in a relationship of direct subordination with a close relative or close relative by marriage, while in public service.

(2) Officials specified in subsection 4 (1) of this Act shall not:

1) hold a second job with a work load higher and at a time different than permitted by the immediate superior if such employment damages the reputation of the position or office, or if performance of the duties of employment also means supervision over the other employer;

2) be a member of the directing or supervisory body of a company, except the representative of the state, a local government or legal person in public law of a company with the participation of the state, local government or legal person in public law;

3) be the director of a branch of a foreign company;

4) be employed in an office where an official who directly monitors him or her, or is his or her immediate superior is a close relative or close relative of the official by marriage;

5) be a member of a legal person in public law and, at the same time, the directing or supervisory body of a legal person directly monitored by the legal person in public law;

6) be a member of the directing or supervisory body of a company with state or local government holding within three years after resignation from the public service.

(3) An official may operate as an undertaking, be a partner of a general partnership or general partner of a limited partnership only with the permission of the person or agency who has appointed or elected him or her to office or hired under an employment contract if such activity does not hinder the performance of duties of employment or damage the reputation of the position or office. Everyone has the right to obtain information from the official who has appointed or elected an official to office or hired him or her under an employment contract concerning this permission.

(4) An official shall not exercise supervision over the activities of himself or herself as an undertaking, or over a general partnership of which he or she is a partner or a limited partnership of which he or she is a general partner in performing his or her duties of employment or service.

(5) For the purposes of this Act, close relatives mean grandparents, parents, brothers, sisters, children and grandchildren; close relatives by blood mean the spouse, his or her parents, brothers, sisters and children.

§ 20. Special rules for restrictions on employment and activities of officials

(1) The restrictions on employment and activities of officials specified in clauses 4 (2) 1)-16) of this Act are not regulated by § 19 of this Act but are provided for in §§ 63 and 84 of the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia and in the Acts concerning the activities of the Riigikogu, the Government of the Republic, the Legal Chancellor, the State Audit Office, the Bank of Estonia, prosecutor’s offices, Defence Forces and the border guard, judges, the police, notaries’ offices, bailiffs and local governments, and in other legislation which separately regulates the official position, rights and obligations of the officials of such categories.

(2) Taking into account the specific character of some offices, the Government of the Republic may establish a list of offices the employment in which may be permitted, regardless of the restrictions provided for in clauses 19 (2) 4) and 5) of this Act, by the minister in whose area of government the place of employment is, provided there is no risk of corruption involved. The minister shall justify the grant of permission every time. Upon the establishment of exceptions, the person who establishes the exceptions shall exercise regular supervision over the justification thereof and submit a corresponding report together with the opinion of the State Audit Office to the Riigikogu committee specified in subsection 14 (2) of this Act.

(3) Taking into account the specific character of some offices, a local government may establish a list of offices the employment in which may be permitted, regardless of the restrictions provided for in clauses 19 (2) 4) and 5) of this Act, by the executive body of the local government, provided there is no risk of corruption involved. The executive body of a local government shall justify the grant of permission every time. Upon the establishment of exceptions, the person who establishes the exceptions shall exercise regular supervision over the justification thereof and submit a corresponding report together with the opinion of the county governor to the committee or member of the council specified in subsection 14 (4) of this Act.

Chapter 4 Procedural restrictions

§ 21. Definition of procedural restrictions

(1) For the purposes of this Act, a procedural restriction means a prohibition to perform acts which enable to receive income derived from corrupt practices.

(2) Procedural restrictions do not apply to activities as a result of which income on shares of a company is received, unless otherwise provided by law. An official may also receive income as royalties, revenue from patents, interest on deposits, on immovables which are subjected to commercial lease or use by other persons, fee for the works published in print or electronic media, and other income which does not presume the employment of the recipient thereof to promote the economic benefit of another person, unless otherwise provided by law.

§ 22. Prohibition on acceptance of remuneration or more than adequate remuneration

(1) An official who is required to provide services or make decisions without charge shall not demand or accept remuneration therefor in money, in kind or as a favour.

(2) An official who is required to provide services pursuant to the official procedure for a specific remuneration in money, shall not demand or accept remuneration therefor different from the remuneration set out in the rates or price lists.

§ 23. Duty to give notification of bribery

(1) An official is required to notify the immediate superior or head of the agency and the police in writing of any offering, giving or acceptance of a bribe which becomes known to him or her.

(Entered into force 1 September 2002.)

Chapter 17 Offences related to office

§ 293. Accepting of gratuities

(1) An official who accepts property or other benefits or consents to the delivery of property or other benefits to a person associated with the official in return for a lawful act which he or she has committed or which there is reason to believe that he or she will commit, or for a lawful omission which he or she has committed or which there is reason to believe that he or she will commit and, in so doing, takes advantage of his or her official position and acts in the interests of the person offering the gratuities or any other person shall be punished by a pecuniary punishment or up to 3 years’ imprisonment.

(2) The same act, if committed:

1) at least twice;

2) by extorting gratuities;

3) by a group, or

4) on a large-scale basis,

is punishable by up to 5 years’ imprisonment.

(3) An act provided for in subsection (1) or (2) of this section, if committed by a legal person, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment.

§ 294. Accepting bribe

(1) An official who accepts property or other benefits or consents to the delivery of property or other benefits to a person associated with the official in return for an unlawful act which he or she has committed or which there is reason to believe that he or she will commit, or for an unlawful omission which he or she has committed or which there is reason to believe that he or she will commit taking advantage of his or her official position in the interests of the person offering the bribe or any other person shall be punished by 1 to 5 years’ imprisonment.

(2) The same act, if committed:

1) at least twice;

2) by extorting bribe;

3) by a group, or

4) on a large-scale basis,

is punishable by 2 to 10 years’ imprisonment.

(3) An act provided for in subsection (1) of this section, if committed by a legal person, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment.

(4) An act provided for in subsection (2) of this section, if committed by a legal person, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or compulsory dissolution.

§ 295. Arranging receipt of gratuities

(1) Arranging a receipt of gratuity is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or up to one year of imprisonment.

(2) The same act, if committed:

1) at least twice, or

2) by taking advantage of an official position,

is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or up to 3 years’ imprisonment.

(3) An act provided for in subsection (1) or (2) of this section, if committed by a legal person, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment.

§ 296. Arranging bribe

(1) Arranging a bribe is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or up to one year of imprisonment.

(2) The same act, if committed:

1) at least twice, or

2) by taking advantage of an official position,

is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or up to 3 years’ imprisonment.

(3) An act provided for in subsection (1) or (2) of this section, if committed by a legal person, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment.

§ 297. Granting of gratuities

(1) Granting a gratuity is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or up to 3 years’ imprisonment.

(2) The same act, if committed at least twice, is punishable by up to 5 years’ imprisonment.

(3) An act provided for in subsection (1) or (2) of this section, if committed by a legal person, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment.

§ 298. Giving bribe

(1) Giving a bribe is punishable by 1 to 5 years’ imprisonment.

(2) The same act, if committed at least twice, is punishable by 2 to 10 years’ imprisonment.

(3) An act provided for in subsection (1) of this section, if committed by a legal person, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment.

(4) An act provided for in subsection (2) of this section, if committed by a legal person, is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or compulsory dissolution.

§ 301. Application of confiscation

A court may, pursuant to the provisions of § 83 of this Code, apply confiscation of an object which was the direct object of the commission of an offence provided for in §§ 293 to 299 of this Code.

Police Background Check Procedures

Who can apply?

• Individuals
• Third party applicants.

Where?

• Applications are accepted by post or email directly to the national Police Board (Politseiamet)
• UK employers seeking disclosure should contact the police board.
What must the applicant supply?
Completed application form requiring:
• Purpose for disclosure
• Full name
• Social security number
• Date and place of birth
• Passport number (or ID card number)
• Residential address in Estonia
• Contact details (full postal address, telephone number and email address)
• Postal applications should be accompanied by a signed and dated copy of the applicant ́s passport or ID card

What are the costs/turnaround?

• There is no fee for a notice from the punishment register. For postal applications or emailed,
payment should be made by bank transfer.
• Turnaround of around 2 days for Limited checks and 10 days for Full checks. This does not include postal time.
• There is no fast track service available.

Contact Details

Application form available in English, Estonian and Russian:
www.politsei.ee/files/dokumen
did/Karistusreg/karreg_isik.pdf
Applications should be sent to:
Karistusregister
Politseiamet
Pärnu mnt 139
15060 Tallinn Estonia
Tel: 00372 612 3468 / 3366
Fax: 00372 612 3332
Email: karistusregister@pol.ee
Website: www.politsei.ee/?id=214
UK address:
Embassy of the Republic of Estonia
16 Hyde Park Gate
London
SW7 5DG
Tel: 020 7589 3428
Fax: 020 7589 3430
Email: embassy.london@estonia.gov.uk
Website: www.estonia.gov.uk

Estonia – Know Your Customer (KYC) Rules

Estonia has one of the most developed banking systems of the eastern European Union (EU) countries. Estonia has adopted the universal banking model, which enables credit institutions to participate in a variety of activities such as leasing, insurance, and securities. Transnational and organized crime groups are attracted to the territory due to its location between Eastern and Western Europe. The drug situation in Estonia is similar to that in other EU Member States in the region. Analysis of suspicious transaction reports (STRs) disclose some incidents of transferring the proceeds of Internet crime to Estonia.

KNOW-YOUR-CUSTOMER (KYC) RULES:

Enhanced due diligence procedures for PEPs:

PEP is an abbreviation for Politically Exposed Person, a term that describes a person who has been entrusted with a prominent public function, or an individual who is closely related to such a person. The terms PEP, Politically Exposed Person and Senior Foreign Political Figure are often used interchangeably

    • Foreign PEP: YES
    • Domestic PEP: YES

Estonia – KYC covered entities

The following is a list of Know Your Customer entities covered by Estonian Law:

    • Credit and financial institutions
    • Lottery/gambling institutions
    • Real estate firms
    • High value goods traders
    • Pawnbrokers
    • Auditors and accountants
    • Accounting and tax advisors
    • Providers of trust fund and business association services
    • Notaries, attorneys, bailiffs, and trustees and interim trustees in bankruptcy

Estonia – Suspicious Transaction Reporting (STR) Requirements:

Number of STRs received and time frame: 4,317 from January to October 2011

Number of CTRs received and time frame: 5,449 from January to October 2011

The following is a list of STR covered entities covered by Estonian Law:

    • Credit and financial institutions
    • Lottery/gambling institutions
    • Real estate firms
    • High value goods traders
    • Pawnbrokers
    • Auditors and accountants
    • Accounting and tax advisors
    • Providers of trust fund and business association services
    • Notaries, attorneys, bailiffs, and trustees and interim trustees in bankruptcy

MONEY LAUNDERING CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS/CONVICTIONS:

Prosecutions: 59 from January to October 2011
Convictions: Eight cases involving 33 persons from January to October 2011

ENFORCEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES AND COMMENTS:

On January 1, 2011, Estonia joined the euro zone. Estonia has worked to bring its anti-money laundering regime into compliance with international standards. In 2010 Estonia addressed domestic payment services by enforcing the Financial Institutions and e-Money Institutions Act.
The Estonian penal code establishes asset seizure and forfeiture, with special provisions for money laundering. Estonia established an Asset Recovery Unit under the FIU to concentrate on organized crime, detecting criminal assets from serious crimes, and identifying criminal assets transferred to foreign countries.

Risk

Sovereign risk

Public debt is low. The budget recorded small deficits in 2012-13. The government coalition has cut income tax and raised the tax-free allowance ahead of the election in March 2015, but fiscal loosening will be kept in check. The Economist Intelligence Unit forecasts that the budget will remain in surplus throughout the forecast period.

Banking sector risk

The ratio of domestic credit to GDP has been reined in and banks have reduced their exposure to foreign debt. Banking indicators remain sound. In 2014 the profit of credit institutions rose, capital adequacy climbed and the incidence of bad loans fell. Stronger economic growth in 2015-16 should allow these trends to continue.

Political risk

Political risk has increased owing to the approach of the next parliamentary election, set for March 2015. Russia’s takeover of Crimea in March 2014 will have a lasting effect on NATO’s stance towards the country, and security will remain at the top of Estonia’s political agenda for some time.

Economic structure risk

As a small, open economy, Estonia remains vulnerable to external shocks.

Travel Risk

Security

The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The purpose of this Travel Advice is to provide up-to-date information to enable you to make well-informed decisions.

Crime

Violent crime occurs, but foreigners are not usually targeted. Petty crime (e.g. pickpocketing, purse snatching and mugging) also occurs, particularly in Tallinn’s Old Town during the summer tourist season. Thieves often work in small groups and target tourists in airports, train stations and other public areas. Avoid parks, poorly lit streets and certain areas of Tallinn after dark, including Kopli and Lasnamäe.

Theft of vehicles or their contents is common. Keep vehicles locked and in guarded parking lots overnight.

Road safety

Road travel can be hazardous because of aggressive drivers, disregarded traffic laws, poorly lit country roads and wandering animals. Driving can be especially dangerous in winter, when roads are icy and snow covered.

The Estonian Traffic Act requires that all pedestrians wear small reflectors at night. The reflectors can be purchased at most stores and are usually pinned to coats or bags. The law is most enforced in rural areas, where lack of lighting makes it difficult for drivers to see pedestrians. Failure to wear a reflector may result in a fine of €40 and, in the case of multiple offences or if the offender is under the influence of alcohol, up to €400.

Demonstrations

Demonstrations are rare but should be avoided, as all demonstrations and large gatherings can suddenly turn violent. Follow the advice of local authorities and monitor local media.

Public Transportation

Use only officially marked taxis and make sure that the taxi meter is in use and that prices are posted. Order a taxi rather than hail one from the street. The taxi companies Tulika Takso, Linnatakso and Tallink Takso are able to confirm the type, number and colour of the car when you order.

City buses are reliable but often crowded. Rail service is usually good but is limited to local connections around the main cities in Estonia.

Bus, plane and ferry services to neighbouring countries operate frequently. Relatively good highways connect Estonia with Latvia and Russia.

See Transportation Safety in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.

fraud

Credit card and debit card fraud occurs. Pay careful attention when your cards are being handled by others during payment processing.

Internet frauds such as dating and financial scams occur.

See Overseas Fraud for more information on scams abroad.

General safety measures

Carry adequate identification at all times. Keep a photocopy of your passport in case of loss or seizure.

Exercise normal security precautions. Do not show signs of affluence. Ensure that personal belongings and passports and other travel documents are secure at all times.

Emergency services

Dial 112 for emergency assistance.

Travel Risk

Budget Autonomy No
Annual Budget of the Agency US $ 11.5 million
Per Capital Expenditure $(US) 8.87
Expeniture as % of the GDP 0.05 %
Are employees protected by law from recrimination or other negative consequences when reporting corruption (i.e. whistle-blowing)? Yes
Does your country have freedom of information legislation? Yes
Does your country have conflict of interest legislation? Yes
Does your country have a financial disclosure system to help prevent conflicts of interest? Yes
Who appoints the head of your agency? The government appoints general prosecutor on the proposal of the Minister of Justice.
Who has the authority to remove the head of the ACA? The Minister of Justice or the government on the proposal of the Minister of Justice.
Is there any term limit for the head of the ACA? Yes , the Prosecutor General is appointed to office for a term of five years.
Does your agency measure performance? Yes
Number of investigations launched
Number of investigations completed
Full access to Government Yes

Address Format

RECIPIENT

[STREET_NAME] [FARM_NAME] [HOUSE_NUMBER]
[VILLAGE_NAME] [BOROUGH_NAME]
[PARISH_NAME]
POSTAL_CODE LOCALITY|PROVINCE
ESTONIA

Sample

Elina Loor
Kõik 5
KOPPELMAA
ÄÄSMÄE
76402 Harjumaa
ESTONIA

 

Summary

Calendar GMT Reference Actual Previous Consensus Forecast
2015-02-11 06:00 AM Q4 2.7% 2.2% 2.45%
2015-03-11 06:00 AM Q4 2.9% 2.2% 2.7% 2.7%
2015-05-12 06:00 AM Q1 1.8% 2.9% 2.8%
2015-06-09 06:00 AM Q1 2.9% 1.8% 1.8%
2015-08-11 06:00 AM Q2 2.9%
2015-09-08 06:00 AM Q2
TOP
Translate »

Subscribe For Latest Updates

You will receive interesting updates about Background Screening

We will not leak your personal information