BRAZIL BACKGROUND CHECK

We are dealing with the comprehensive services of verifications which are going to help the big concerns in order to avoid the risks which are created by the persons who have given the responsibility of recruiting the applicants in the firms. The misrepresentation established when associates wrongfully admit the candidate in the firm which in turn disobeying the rules and regulations which has been framed by the higher officials. The background verifications in Brazil are must as there have been cases of mis-handling of the set of laws framed by the firms. Background screeners look this as the wakeup call for the firms who need advices

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General Information

GDP USD2346.118bn (World ranking 7, World Bank 2014)
Population 202.03 million (World ranking 5, World Bank 2014)
Form of state Federal Republic
Head of government Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT)
Next elections 2018, presidential and legislative

CURRENT LOCAL TIME

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PRODUCTS IN BRAZIL

Data Protection

Brazil

Contribution Details

Murta Goyanes advogados

Avenida rio branco, 1, 1709
Centro, rio de Janeiro, rJ CEP: 20090-003

Marcelo Goyanes

Founding Partner

Luis henrique Porangaba

Founding Partner

Law

Brazil does not have a law that is specifically devoted to data protection. However, there are general principles and provisions on data protection and privacy in the Federal Constitution, in
the Brazilian Civil Code and in laws and regulations that address particular types of relationships (eg the Consumer Protection Code1 and labor laws), particular sectors (eg financial institutions, health industry, telecommunications etc.), and particular professional activities (eg medicine
and law). Additionally, there are laws on the treatment and safeguarding of documents and information handled by governmental entities and bodies that have privacy implications.

The Federal Constitution provides that (i) the intimacy, private life, honor and image of persons are inviolable; (ii) the confidentiality of correspondence and electronic communication is protected; and (iii) everyone is ensured access to information, although the confidentiality of the source shall be safeguarded whenever necessary for the exercise of a professional activity.

Discussion of privacy legislation has increased recently. The National Congress is reviewing several bills that address data protection, and the Executive Branch presented a new proposal
for a specific data protection and other internet related issues law on August 24, 2011, which has been presented to Congress for consideration.
On November 30, 2012, the National Congress enacted computer crime Law 12,737/2012, which criminalizes the acts of hacking or invading electronic devices with intent to obtain, adulterate or destroy data and/or information without the consent of the owner of the device.

Due to a broad interpretation established in case law, practically every internet user is considered a “consumer” for the purposes of the consumer protection.

Definition of Personal Data

There is no legal definition of “personal data” established in a particular statute. In general, it should be considered to include any particular information related to an individual, including name, age, sex, profession, address, religion, sexual orientation, criminal background, as well as any personal communication exchanged without any intent to go public, such as personal emails and messaging.

Definition of sensitiVe PersonaL Data

There is no legal definition of “sensitive data” or the equivalent.

National Data Protection Authority

Brazil does not have a national data protection authority.

Registration

There is no requirement to register databases.

Data Protection Officers

There is no requirement to appoint a data protection officer.

Collection and Processing

In general, there is no requirement to obtain prior consent to collect personal data submitted by the subject. However, the use, treatment and protection of such data are subject to some restrictions. Some specific statutes and case law establish that the scope of collection, treatment and use of personal data must be restricted to the purpose for which the data was originally collected. There is also a common understanding that certain sensitive data (eg religion, sexual orientation, criminal background etc.) should not be collected and used for any discriminatory purpose; if a company collects and uses such sensitive data it should obtain the person’s consent.

In particular, the Brazilian Consumer Protection Code establishes that a consumer should be notified in writing of the opening of a consumer file, form, registry or database containing personal data regarding a consumer if the consumer did not request that it be opened. Consumers are entitled to have access to personal data and databases about themselves and
to demand immediate correction whenever they find that the data or files are incorrect. Other limitations apply. For example, negative information (such as relating to debts, breach of agreements etc.) may not be retained for more than five years.

Transfer

Brazilian law does not expressly restrict cross border data transfer. However, some general principles may imply restrictions on the cross border transfer of personal data in certain cases (eg clinical trial data and medical records). In the absence of specific legislation, geographic  transfer should be permitted upon consent from the parties involved.

Security

In view of applicable general principles, data processors in Brazil are required to take reasonable technical, physical and organizational measures to protect the security of personal data, but, generally, there are no specific requirements, restrictions or details on how security should be implemented. Case law establishes that service providers and networks should
keep access records (such as IP addresses, logins etc) so as to identify users who may have committed crimes, defamation or acts of infringement. If such records are not kept for a reasonable period of time, the service provider or network may be held jointly liable for an act of infringement.

Breach Notification

Security breach notification is not required.

Nevertheless, in view of the recently enacted hacking Law 12,737/2012, the owner of the personal data or the breached device may – although not obligated to do so – notify public authorities in order to conduct enquiries, so as to identify and prosecute the individual responsible for the crime of hacking and/or invasion of protected device established therein.

Enforcement

Currently, there is no data protection authority. Enforcement can occur through administrative procedures, individual civil suits or class actions, which can be initiated by the data subject, by public authorities (eg State Attorney’s Office, Consumer Protection Office and the regulator for the relevant industry) or by associations that defend collective interests.

Public authorities may impose fines and, where relevant, revoke licenses or permits. Civil damages can be significant, because infringements of privacy rights may entitle the defendant to moral damages. Most case law on privacy and data protection involves violations of consumer rights.

Administrative fines related to consumer issues can be established in amounts up to R$3 million (approx. US$1.5 million). Damage awards may vary but in actions brought by a single consumer should not surpass R$15,000 (approx. US$7,500), while class actions may reach values far above US$1 million.

It is worth mentioning the existence of habeas data, a remedy provided for in the Federal Constitution, which can be used to gain access to personal data contained in records or databases of governmental bodies or entities having a public character, and for the correction of the applicant’s data contained in such records and databases.

Electronic Marketing

There is no federal law specifically addressing electronic marketing.

On January 9, 2012, the State of Rio de Janeiro enacted State Law 6,161/2012, which provides penalties for the offering of products and services by so-called collective buying websites within territorial limits of the same State. Under this law, information on offers and promotions may be sent only to clients previously registered through the website who have expressly consented to receive such information via email.

There is also a bill currently under discussion in the Senate which intends to amend the Brazilian Consumer Protection Code to establish as an abusive practice the unsolicited offer of products and/or services through electronic means or telephone.

In spite of the lack of a specific statute, the general provisions on privacy and intimacy rights, as well as consumer protection rights still apply; thus, a sender should immediately cease sending any sort of electronic marketing if so requested by the consumer.

Online Privacy (Including Cookies and Location Data)

There is no law specifically addressing online privacy.

Nevertheless, the established rights of privacy, intimacy and consumer rights apply equally to electronic media, such as mobile devices and the Internet.

So, violations of these rights may be subject to civil enforcement. It is generally understood that the gathering and exploitation of personal data from a user through cookies without consent may be contrary to privacy and intimacy rights, if the data subject is identifiable
(i.e. the information is directly linked to a particular user, IP address, device or other particular identifier etc.). The same rationale applies to location data, which is considered to be a more sensitive type of personal data.

Therefore, cookies, location data and equivalent online data collection methods are permitted if either:

  • the data subject’s consent is obtained;
  • it is not possible to recognize or identify the data subject (if data cannot be linked to a given subject it does not affect privacy and intimacy rights).

Finally, it is also worth mentioning that Law 12,737/2012 criminalises the installation or exploiting of software, devices and/or vulnerabilities within an electronic device in order to obtain illicit advantage. So data collectors should be cautious as to the nature and extent of the cookies and other applications operating in the data subject’s system.

According to Article 9 of this law the public servant will be sanctioned if he receives a benefit or any other illegal advantage to perform an act contrary to his duties. The assets, rights and valuables resulting from any of the crimes described in article 9 of this law will be confiscated in favour of the Union.

(Passed on: 11 June 2002)

Law No. 10.467, of June 11, 2002 – Adds Chapter II-A to Section XI of Decree-Law No. 2,848, of December 7, 1940 – Penal Code, and a provision to Law No. 9,613, of March 3, 1998, which rules on the crimes of ‘money laundering’ or hiding assets, rights and securities; the prevention of the use of the Financial System for the illegal acts provided for in this Law, creates the Financial Activities Control Board (Coaf), and makes other provisions.

The president of the republic: I make it known that the National Congress has decreed and that I approve the following Law:

Article 1 The purpose of this Law is to put into effect Decree No. 3,678, of November 30, 2000, which enacts the Convention on Combating the Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, completed in Paris on December 17, 1997.

Article 2 Section XI of Decree-Law No. 2,848, of December 7, – Penal Code, now comes into effect with the addition of the following Chapter II-A:

“Section XI

Chapter II-A Crimes committed by a natural person against a foreign public administration Public official.”

Article 327 For the purposes of criminal law, anyone who, even though temporarily or unpaid, performs a public job, position or function is deemed to be a public official. § 1st – Anyone who performs a public job, or holds a function in a para-state body or who works for a service-providing company hired or contracted to carry out any typical activity in the Public Administration is also deemed to be a public official. (Included by the Law 9 983 of 2000) § 2nd – The penalty shall be increased in one third when the perpetrators of the crimes set forth in this Chapter hold commissioned positions or management position or work as an assistant to a body in the direct administration, mixed-economy society, public company or foundation instituted by the public power. (Included by Law 6 799 of 1980)

Active Corruption

Article 333 Offer or promise undue advantage to an official in order to convince him to act, fail to act or hold back an official act: Sentence – incarceration from 2 (two) to 12 (twelve) years and a fine. (Included by Law 10 163 of 12 November 2003) Sole Paragraph – the sentence shall be increased in one third if due to advantage or a promise, the official holds back or omits an official act or does and by doing so breaks his official duty.

Active bribery in an international business transaction

Article 337-B. Promising, offering, or giving, directly or indirectly, any improper advantage to a foreign public official or to a third person, in order for him or her to put into practice, to omit, or to delay any official act relating to an international business transaction.

Penalty – Deprivation of liberty of from 1 (one) year to 8 (eight) years plus a fine. Sole paragraph. The penalty is increased by 1/3 (one third) if, because of the advantage or promise, the foreign public official actually delays or omits, or puts into practice the official act in breach of his or her functional duty.

The traffic of influence in an international business transaction

Article 337-C. Requesting, requiring, charging, or obtaining, for oneself or for another person, directly or indirectly, any advantage or promise of advantage in exchange for influencing an act carried out by a foreign public official in the exercise of his or her functions relating to an international business transaction:

Penalty – deprivation of liberty, of from 2 (two) to 5 (five) years, plus a fine.

Sole paragraph. The penalty is increased by half, if the perpetrator alleges or insinuates that the advantage is also intended for a foreign public official.

Foreign Public Official

Article 337-D. A foreign public official is deemed to be, for the purposes of the criminal law, anyone, even though temporarily or in an unpaid capacity, who holds a position, a job or a public function in state bodies or in diplomatic representations of a foreign country.

Sole paragraph. Anyone who holds a position, a job or function in an organisation or enterprise directly or indirectly controlled by the Public Authorities of the foreign country or in international public organisations is deemed to be equivalent to a foreign public official.

Article 3 Article 1 of Law No. 9,613, of March 3, 1998, now comes into effect with the addition of the following clause VIII:

“Article 1

VIII – committed by a natural person against a foreign public administration

(articles. 337-B, 337-C and 337-D of Decree-Law No. 2,848, of December 7, 1940 – Penal Code).”

Article 4 This Law comes into effect on the date of its publication.

(Adopted on October 15th 1988)

Chapter IV – Political Rights

Article 14.

The sovereignty of the people shall be exercised by universal suffrageand by the direct and secret voting, with equal value for all, and, according to the law, by means of:

I – plebiscite;

II – referendum;

III – people’s initiative.

Paragraph 1. Electoral enrollment and voting are:

I – mandatory for persons over eighteen years of age;

II – optional for:

a) the illiterate;

b) those over seventy years of age;

c) those over sixteen and under eighteen years of age.

Paragraph 2. Foreigners cannot register as voters and neither can conscripts during their period of compulsory military service.

Paragraph 3. The conditions for eligibility, according to the law, are:

I – the Brazilian nationality;

II – the full exercise of the political rights;

III – the electoral enrollment;

IV – the electoral domicile in the electoral district;

V – the membership in a political party;

VI – the minimum age of:

a) thirty-five years for President and Vice-President of the Republic and Senator;

b) thirty years for Governor and Vice-Governor of a state and of the Federal District;

c) twenty-one years for Federal Deputy, State or District Deputy, Mayor, Vice-Mayor and justice of the peace:

d) eighteen years for City Councilman.

Paragraph 4. The illiterate and those that cannot be registered as voters are not eligible.

Paragraph 5. The President of the Republic, the State and Federal District Governors, the Mayors and those who have succeeded or replaced them during their terms of office may be reelected for only one subsequent term.

Paragraph 5 : CA nr. 16, June 4th 1997. This was called the Amendment of the Re-election. Before the amendment, Chiefs of the Executive could not run for re-election. It is a fact that ex-President Fernando Henrique Cardoso spent much effort to approve this amendment; this was one of the reasons to explain why the second half of his first term was not as productive as the first half. There were several rumors that some Deputies would have received bribery for voting in favor of this amendment.

Paragraph 6. In order to run for other offices, the President of the Republic, the State and Federal District Governors and the Mayors have to resign from their respective offices at least six months in advance of the election.

Paragraph 7. The spouse and relatives by blood or marriage, up to the second degree or by adoption, of the President of the Republic, of the Governor of a State or Territory or of the Federal District, of a Mayor or of those who have replaced them within the six months preceding the election, are not eligible in the jurisdiction of the incumbent, unless they already hold an elective office and are candidates for re-election.

Paragraph 8. A member of the Armed Forces that can be registered as voter is eligible if the following conditions are met:

I – if he has less than ten years of service, he shall have to take leave from military activities;

II – if he has more than ten years of service, he shall be discharged of military duties by his superiors and, if elected, he shall automatically pass into retirement upon the issuing of the official certificate of electoral victory.

Paragraph 9. In order to protect the administrative probity, morality for the exercise of the office, the previous life of the candidate being considered, and the normality and legitimacy of the elections against the influence of the economic power or of the abuse in the holding of office, position or job in the direct or indirect public administration, a supplementary law shall establish other cases of ineligibility and the periods for such ineligibilities to cease.

Paragraph 9: CA of Revision nr. 4, June 7th 1994.

Paragraph 10.The exercise of an elective mandate may be impugned before the Electoral Courts within a period of fifteen days after the date of the issuing of the of ficial certificate of electoral victory, substantiating the suit with evidence of abuse of economic power, corruption or fraud.

Paragraph 11. The procedure of the suit impugning the office shall be secret, and the plaintiff shall be liable under the law if the suit is reckless or involves manifest bad faith.

Police Background Check Procedures

Who can apply?

•  Individuals and third party representatives (friend, relative) with the power of attorney (Procuração) to obtain the document on their behalf.
•  The power of attorney must specify the reason for the request and provide a certified copy of the applicant ́s National ID card.

Where?

•  Locally: in person to the office of the Justice Federal and Policia Federal in the state/city of
residence for the previous ten years.
•  Online (varies regionally):http://www.jf.jus.br/cjf/servico/certidaonegativa

What must the applicant supply?

•  Full name
•  Brazilian ID card number
•  Brazilian CPF number (Brazilian tax card)
•  Passport Bio-data copy.Contact Details
•  For addresses or telephone numbers of the Federal Police (Policia Federal) access website: http://www.dpf.gov.br/institucional/pf-pelo-brasil/
•  Regional offices:http://www.jf.jus.br/cjf/servico/certidao-negativa
•  Contact the British Embassy in Brasília at the websitehttp://ukinbrazil.fco.gov.uk/en
•  Embassy of Brazil, 14/16 Cockspur Street SW1Y 5BL (020 7747 4500)–
•  www.brazil.org.uk

Brazil – Know Your Customer (KYC) Rules

As of 2011, Brazil is the world‘s seventh largest economy by nominal GDP. Brazil is considered a regional financial center for Latin America. It is a major drug-transit country, as well as one of the world‘s largest consumer countries. Money laundering in Brazil is primarily related to domestic crime, especially drug trafficking, corruption, organized crime, gambling, and trade in various types of contraband. Laundering channels include the use of banks, real estate investment, financial asset markets, luxury goods, remittance networks, informal financial networks, and trade-based money laundering.

Sao Paulo and the Tri-Border Area (TBA) of Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay are particular areas that possess high risk factors for money laundering. In addition to weapons and narcotics, a wide variety of counterfeit goods, including CDs, DVDs, and computer software (much of it of Asian origin), are routinely smuggled across the border from Paraguay into Brazil. In addition to Sao Paulo and the TBA, other areas of the country are also of growing concern. The Government of Brazil (GOB) and local officials in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, and Parana, for example, have reported increased involvement by Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo gangs in the already significant trafficking in weapons and drugs that plagues Brazil‘s western border states.

KNOW-YOUR-CUSTOMER (KYC) RULES:

 

Enhanced due diligence procedures for PEPs:

 

A PEP is an abbreviation for Politically Exposed Person, a term that describes a person who has been entrusted with a prominent public function, or an individual who is closely related to such a person. The terms PEP, Politically Exposed Person and Senior Foreign Political Figure are often used interchangeably

    • Foreign PEP: YES
    • Domestic PEP: YES

Brazil – KYC covered entities

 

The following is a list of Know Your Customer entities covered by Brazilian Law:

    • Commercial and savings banks and credit unions
    • Insurance companies and brokers
    • Securities, foreign exchange, and commodities brokers/traders
    • Real estate brokers
    • Credit card companies
    • Money remittance businesses
    • Factoring companies
    • Gaming and lottery operators and bingo parlors
    • dealers in jewelry, precious metals, art and antiques

Brazil – Suspicious Transaction Reporting (STR) Requirements:

 

Number of STRs received and time frame: 1,038,505 STRs/CTRs in 2010 (only combined figures are available)

The following is a list of STR covered entities covered by Brazilian Law:

    • Commercial and savings banks and credit unions
    • Insurance companies and brokers
    • Securities, foreign exchange, and commodities brokers/traders
    • Real estate brokers
    • Credit card companies
    • Money remittance businesses
    • Factoring companies
    • Gaming and lottery operators and bingo parlors
    • dealers in jewelry, precious metals, art and antiques

MONEY LAUNDERING CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS/CONVICTIONS:

 

Prosecutions: Not available
Convictions: Not available

ENFORCEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES AND COMMENTS:

The GOB has achieved visible results over the last few years from investments in border and law enforcement infrastructure that were executed with a view to gradually control the flow of goods, both legal and illegal across Brazil‘s land borders. Anti-smuggling and law enforcement efforts by state and federal agencies have increased. Brazilian Customs and the Brazilian Tax Authority (Receita Federal) continue to take effective action to suppress the smuggling of drugs, weapons, and contraband goods along the border with Paraguay. Because of the effective crackdown on the Friendship Bridge connecting Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, and Ciudad del Este, Paraguay, most smuggling has migrated to other sections of the border. The Federal Police have Special Maritime Police Units that aggressively patrol the maritime border areas.

Legal persons are not subject to direct civil or administrative liability for committing money laundering (ML) offenses. Corporate criminal liability is not possible due to fundamental principles of domestic law. Natural and legal persons are not subject to effective sanctions for ML because systemic problems in the court system seriously hamper the ability to obtain final convictions and sentences. There are very few final convictions for ML, and convictions in the first instance are low given the level of ML risk and size of the financial sector. The GOB should take legislative action to establish direct civil or administrative corporate liability for ML and ensure that effective, proportionate and dissuasive sanctions may be applied to legal persons.

Brazil also should continue to support the Specialized Federal Courts and other measures to ameliorate the negative impact of some of the systemic problems in the court system which are undermining the ability to effectively apply final sanctions for ML. The GOB should continue taking measures to ensure the overlapping jurisdiction among federal and state law enforcement authorities does not impede the effectiveness of their ability to investigate ML. Brazil also should continue the PNLD training program and extend it as widely as possible to ensure that police, prosecutors and judges at both the state and federal levels have sufficient training in the investigation and prosecution of ML cases.

Most high-priced goods in the TBA are paid for in U.S. dollars, and cross-border bulk cash smuggling is a major concern. Large sums of U.S. dollars generated from licit and suspected illicit commercial activity are transported physically from Paraguay through Uruguay and Brazil to banking centers in the United States. Brazil maintains some controls of capital flows and requires disclosure of the ownership of corporations.

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement established a Brazil-based partner Trade Transparency Unit (TTU) to aggressively analyze, identify, and investigate companies and individuals involved in trade-based money laundering activities between Brazil and the United States. As a result of the TTU, Brazil has identified millions of dollars of lost revenue.

The GOB has generally responded to U.S. efforts to identify and block terrorist-related funds, although the GOB has consistently said there is no evidence of terrorist financing within Brazil despite arrests and designations related to terrorist financing activity within the country.

Although Brazil is a party to the United Nations International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, it has not criminalized terrorist financing in a manner that is consistent with international standards. Terrorist financing is a predicate offense for money laundering but is not an autonomous offense in Brazil. A bill that has been pending legislative action for over two years contains language that could resolve this gap.

Risk

Sovereign risk

Fiscal and monetary policy tightening is under way to curb the rise in the public/debt GDP ratio (which exceeds 60%) and lower inflation (currently over 8%), but it will take time for improvements in macroeconomic performance to materialise in the CRS model. As such, Brazil is unlikely to see an improvement in its BB rating over the 12-month horizon period.

Banking sector risk

Macroeconomic and credit risks are modest but on the rise at the margin. Monetary tightening and a recession this year will lift the non-performing loan ratio, which stood at 2.8% in March. Loan defaults by small and medium-sized enterprises are increasing, as are renegotiations of mortgage terms.

Political risk

A kickback and party-financing corruption scandal at Petróleo Brasileiro (Petrobras, the state-controlled oil company) has implicated members of the ruling coalition, including the leaders of both houses of Congress, impairing governability. Although not directly implicated, the position of the president, Dilma Rousseff, has been weakened by the scandal. Hit by a struggling economy, Ms Rousseff’s popularity has plummeted, and she faces calls for impeachmentalthough this is a remote possibility.

Economic structure risk

Brazil’s wide current-account deficit, public debt burden and poor growth performance weigh on the outlook, but the country’s sound financial system is supportive.

Travel Risk

Security

The decision to travel is your responsibility. You are also responsible for your personal safety abroad. The purpose of this Travel Advice is to provide up-to-date information to enable you to make well-informed decisions.

Gang-related violence

Police efforts to crack down on crime in favelas (shanty towns) have led to retaliation by criminal gangs. As a result, there is an increased chance of violence everywhere, including major thoroughfares. Remain vigilant at all times and comply with security directives imposed by local authorities.

Incidents of gang-related violence continue to pose a threat in large urban centres, where there is often a visible disparity in the levels of wealth. In the past, targets have included police stations, buses, official buildings and businesses. Most tourist hubs and destinations have also been targeted. In urban centres, particularly in or near favelas, violent incidents and armed clashes between police forces and alleged criminals are a regular occurrence. Although additional security forces have been deployed throughout the country, future incidents are likely and could involve the use of firearms, as these are increasingly easy to obtain.

Exercise a high degree of caution at all times and avoid travelling alone, especially at night.

Crime

Serious crime, which can involve significant violence, is high in most urban centres, including, but not limited to, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Brasilia, Recife and Salvador. The use of firearms is common. Victims have been seriously injured or killed when resisting perpetrators.

Robberies involving tourists occur regularly, even during the day, and are sometimes violent. Avoid isolated areas and unsupervised beaches with poor visibility from the sidewalk, and ensure that your hotel or living accommodation is totally secure. Mass mob or flash mob robberies (arrastões) have occurred on city beaches and other crowded areas. This crime involves a large group of thieves that swarm an area and snatch valuable items such as cash, jewellery and cell phones. You should be extremely vigilant. Incidents of sexual assault against foreigners have been reported, sometimes involving the use of sedatives. Unaccompanied female travellers should exercise caution in dealing with strangers or recent acquaintances, and be extremely cautious about accepting invitations.

Visits to favelas (shantytowns) are not recommended; however, those who choose to visit should only go in the company of a reputable tour guide and must exercise extreme caution. Crime levels in favelas are extremely high and police assistance in these areas is very limited. There have been incidents of injuries and deaths as a result of stray bullets near and in favelas.

Street crime, including pickpocketing, mugging and purse snatching, is common, especially during public festivities such as the annual Carnival. Tourists are a favourite target. Be vigilant when visiting outdoor markets and be cautious of strategies to distract your attention. Avoid walking alone on beaches or in central areas of major cities after dark, and use well-lit and well-frequented streets. Carry only small amounts of money and avoid showing signs of affluence, including jewelry, watches and portable electronic devices (laptops, ipads etc.) Store your valuables and important documents in a hotel safe. As Brazilian authorities require all individuals to carry some form of identification, carry a photocopy of the identification page of your passport and visa documentation.

Express kidnappings and carjackings occur throughout the country, particularly in larger cities. Victims are usually picked up from the street and forced to withdraw funds from automated banking machines (ABMs). Remain cautious with new acquaintances who offer friendship, hospitality or assistance. Use only ABMs in well-lit public areas or inside banks and avoid using them during the evening and at night. Credit card fraud is also common, and travellers are advised to keep their cards in sight when executing a transaction.

Armed robberies at restaurants is a growing issue. Patrons should exercise caution and be aware of their surroundings. In all cases, comply with the attackers orders to mitigate the chances of violence.

Criminal activity may occur in Brazilian coastal waters. Mariners are advised to take appropriate precautions and ensure that they can communicate with authorities easily in case of emergency.

Demonstrations and civil unrest

Demonstrations and political and labour strikes are common and could lead to violent incidents. Roadblocks are sometimes used during protests.

Since June 10, 2013, demonstrations have been taking place throughout Brazil to protest against corruption and an increase in costs to basic services. Monitor local media and developments, follow the advice of local authorities and avoid all large crowds, as even peaceful demonstrations can turn violent suddenly.

In São Paulo, protests can cause delays along the main road to Guarulhos International Airport. Expect traffic and public transportation disruptions.

Road travel

Brazil has one of the highest road accident rates in the world. Driving is hazardous due to aggressive driving habits, a significant number of trucks, reckless passing, excessive speeds, poorly marked lanes, construction, vehicles moving in the wrong direction on one-way streets, and poorly maintained roads. Avoid driving after dark, and keep car doors locked and windows closed at all times. Be careful when stopping on the side of any highway, both for traffic and for the potential of being a victim of crime.

When driving in the city, pay particular attention to your surroundings while waiting at traffic lights. It is common for motorists to treat red lights as stop signs between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. to protect against hold-ups at intersections. Most cities will have a flashing yellow light to indicate that drivers only need to yield. Pedestrians and motorists proceeding through green lights during these hours should be particularly cautious. If you feel threatened at any time, do not stop.

Air travel

Reconfirm flight details with your airline and arrive at the airport two hours prior to departure for international flights and one hour prior to departure for domestic flights. Failure to do so could result in the loss of your seat, as airlines attempt to accommodate passengers on waiting lists. Boarding gates frequently change before the final boarding announcement. Boarding announcements are often given in Portuguese only. Verify with airport personnel and listen carefully to all announcements, to ensure that you are at the proper boarding gate.

See Transportation Safety in order to verify if national airlines meet safety standards.

Public Transportation

Theft on buses and trams is common, especially at night. Violent incidents are frequently perpetrated in unofficial taxis, which are often present at airports. Registered taxis are clearly identified but may look different in each city. To be safe, purchase tickets from taxi offices in the airport arrival hall. In town, use taxis from taxi stands. Only use official taxis to travel to and from airports. Few taxi drivers speak English or French. Local law requires the use of the taxi meter to determine the legal fare; adding surcharges to a fare is illegal. Should taxi rates change, drivers may indicate these changes by showing an authorised paper with the new fares if their meters have not been adjusted. At night, it is safer to order a taxi by telephone.

Emergency services

Report all criminal incidents to the nearest police station.

Dial 193 for the fire department, 190 for the police and 192 for ambulance services.

In São Paulo, dial (11) 3120-4447 or 3151-4167 to reach the tourist police (Delegacia de Proteção ao Turista). In Rio de Janeiro, dial (21) 2332-2924, 2332-2511 or 2332-5112 to reach the tourist police.

In case of emergency or an accident with injuries, dial 193 throughout the country. In the event of an accident without injuries, contact the military police at 190. Never confront the driver of the other vehicle in an accident, as this should be handled by the police. Roadside assistance is generally offered by local garage owners.

General safety information

Undertake travel in the Amazon border regions and the Pantanal wetlands only with trained guides. These areas are largely uninhabited and dangerous.

Exercise caution when swimming offshore. Strong currents and sharks are present, especially in Recife. Follow the advice of local authorities before swimming.

Large scale events such as Carnival celebrations, sporting events and international conferences are a common occurrence in larger cities such as Rio de Janeiro and Salvador. Remain vigilant during such events as fraud and theft become more frequent. Banks and businesses are commonly closed during these occasions.

Annual Cases

Budget Autonomy Yes
Annual Budget of the Agency US$ 37.2 Million
Per Capital Expenditure $(US) 0.18
Expeniture as % of the GDP 0.002%
Are employees protected by law from recrimination or other negative consequences when reporting corruption (i.e. whistle-blowing)? No
Does your country have freedom of information legislation? Yes
Does your country have conflict of interest legislation? Yes
Does your country have a financial disclosure system to help prevent conflicts of interest? Yes
Who appoints the head of your agency? The head of the Brazilian Office of the Comptroller General is a Minister of State, appointed by the President of the Republic.
Who has the authority to remove the head of the ACA? The President of the Republic.
Is there any term limit for the head of the ACA? No
Does your agency measure performance? Yes
Ratio of number of investigations/staff
Full access to Government Yes

Address Format

RECIPIENT

STREET HOUSENUMBER
LOCALITY[-STATE CODE]
POSTALCODE
BRAZIL

Sample

Sr. Louis Carvallo
Bvd das flores 255
SALVADOR-BA
40301-110
BRAZIL

 

Summary

Calendar GMT Reference Actual Previous Consensus Forecast
2014-08-28 01:00 PM Q2 -0.9% 1.9% -0.6% -0.7%
2014-11-28 11:00 AM Q3 -0.2% -0.9% -0.2% -0.1%
2015-03-27 12:00 PM Q4 -0.2% -0.6% (R) -0.7% -0.4%
2015-05-29 01:00 PM Q1 -0.2% -1.44%
2015-08-28 01:00 PM Q2 -1.42%
2015-12-01 11:00 AM Q3 -0.89%
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